Viktor Borisovich Shklovsky ( January 12 , 1893 - December 5, 1984 ) - Russian Soviet writer, literary critic , critic and film expert , screenwriter. Winner of the State Prize of the USSR ( 1979 ).
|Birth name||Viktor Borisovich Shklovsky|
|Date of Birth|
|Place of Birth||St. Petersburg , |
|Date of death||or|
|Place of death||Moscow , USSR|
|Occupation||literary critic , literary critic , prose writer , screenwriter , film expert, essayist, bibliophile, memoirist|
|Years of creativity||1916 - 1984|
|Genre||essay , script , novel|
|Language of Works||Russian|
V. B. Shklovsky was born on January 12 (24), 1893 in St. Petersburg in the family of a mathematics teacher, later Professor of Higher Artillery Courses Boris Vladimirovich Shklovsky, a Jew , and his wife Varvara Karlovna, nee Bundel, of Russian - German descent  [ 3] . His father's brother, Isaak Vladimirovich Shklovsky (1864-1935) was a well-known publicist, critic and ethnographer who was published under the pseudonym Dioneo . The elder brother of Viktor Shklovsky - Vladimir Shklovsky (12.03.1889 - 11/24/1937, shot) - became a philologist, teacher of French at the St. Petersburg Theological Academy , in 1919-1922 he was a member of the Council of Orthodox Brotherhoods of Petrograd, was repeatedly arrested, was shot 1937  . Another brother, Nikolai Borisovich (1890-1918), was shot in 1918 as a right SR . Sister - Yevgenia Borisovna (1891-1919) died in Petrograd  .
Youth Victor Shklovsky spent in St. Petersburg. In 1910, he failed in the external examinations at the Nikolaevsky Cadet Corps, in 1913 he graduated from the N. P. Shepoval'nikov private school with a silver medal. As a high school student, he began to publish in the magazine "Spring". He studied at the University of St. Petersburg at the Faculty of History and Philology, attended lectures of such famous scientists as academicians Krachkovsky and Baudouin de Courtenay .
After the outbreak of the First World War in the fall of 1914, he volunteered for the army. He changed several military specialties and in 1915 he returned to Petrograd, where he served in the school of armored officers and instructors. During this period, with a group of like-minded people ( L. P. Yakubinsky , E. D. Polivanov , O. M. Brik, and others), he prepared the first and second issues of "Collections on the Theory of Poetic Language" (1916, 1917), which included Shklovsky’s own “Textbook of Poetry and Abstruse Language” and “Art as a Reception”, which later became textbook works. In 1916, Shklovsky became one of the founders of the Society for the Study of the Theory of Poetic Language ( OPOLA ), which united theorists of formal school in literary criticism; coined the term " estrangement ."
He took an active part in the February Revolution , was elected a member of the Committee of the Petrograd Reserve Armored Division, as his representative participated in the work of the Petrograd Council . As Assistant Commissioner of the Provisional Government, he was sent to the South-Western Front , where on July 3, 1917 he personally led the attack of one of the regiments, was wounded in the stomach right through and received the 4th degree St. George's Cross from the hands of L. G. Kornilov . After recovering as an assistant commissioner of the Provisional Government, he was sent to the Separate Caucasian Cavalry Corps in Persia , where he organized the evacuation of Russian troops and returned with them to Petrograd in early January 1918.
In Petrograd, Shklovsky worked at the Artistic and Historical Commission of the Winter Palace and actively participated in the anti-Bolshevik conspiracy of the Social Revolutionaries . When the plot was uncovered, Shklovsky was forced to leave Petrograd and left for Saratov , hiding for a while in a psychiatric hospital, while at the same time working on the creation of a prose theory. Then he went to Kiev , where he served in the 4th auto-panzer division and participated in an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow Hetman Skoropadsky .
Fulfilling the request of an acquaintance who persuaded him to deliver a large sum of money to Petrograd, he got almost to Moscow itself, but was recognized by a Cheka agent and, fleeing from his arrest, he jumped out of the train. After that, having reached the capital, he met with M. Gorky , who petitioned him before Ya. M. Sverdlov . According to some sources, Sverdlov issued Shklovsky a document on the letterhead of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee with a request to stop his case. At the end of 1918, Shklovsky decided not to participate in political activities anymore and in early 1919 he returned to Petrograd, where he taught literature theory at the Art Translation Studio of the Petrograd publishing house World Literature .
In the spring of 1920, Shklovsky shot at a duel, left Petrograd and went in search of his wife, who left for Ukraine, fleeing hunger. In the ranks of the Red Army Shklovsky took part in the battles of Aleksandrovsk , Kherson and Kakhovka .
Then Shklovsky returned to Petrograd, October 9, 1920 was elected professor of the Russian Institute of Art History . In 1921 and early 1922 Shklovsky was actively published in the magazines Petersburg, House of Arts, Book Corner, published several articles on literary criticism, published a memoir book Revolution and Front, participated in the meetings of the Serapion Brothers group. , was a member of the board of the Petrograd branch of the All-Russian Union of Writers  .
In 1922, arrests of the Social Revolutionaries began, and on March 4, 1922 Shklovsky, fleeing from the arrest, fled to Finland . His wife, Vasilisa Shklovskaya-Kordi , who was arrested as a hostage, was imprisoned for some time. In a letter to Maxim Gorky dated September 18, 1922, Shklovsky writes: “They freed her for a virus of 200 rubles in gold . Vira turned out to be “wild”, as her writers contributed to her. Mostly Serapions ”  . Shklovsky lived in Berlin from April 1922 until June 1923 - (address: Kaiserallee, 207, now Bundesallee), where he published the memoir book Sentimental Journey (1923), which was borrowed from Lawrence Stern’s book Sentimental Journey through France and Italy (1768).
Since the end of 1922, Shklovsky began to ask for a return to the USSR . He returned in September 1923, lived in Moscow. He was close to the futurists - A. Kruchenykh , V. Mayakovsky , with whom he was especially familiar and whom he visited in apartments in Gendrikov Lane, 15/13, and Lubyansky passage, 3/6. With his characteristic temperament, he actively participated in literary discussions of the 1920s, held in the Palace of Arts ( Povarskaya Street , 52) and the Large Audience of the Polytechnic Museum ( Novaya Ploshad , 3). One of the leaders of the group " LEF ". His ideological and aesthetic positions were attacked by RAPP ideologues.
In 1930, Shklovsky made a penitential article "Monument to a scientific error"  . Since the 1930s, forced to move to the principles of a broader socio-historical research, acted as a critic of modern literature. The books of Shklovsky “On Mayakovsky”, “Meetings”, the memoirs “Once upon a time” and others, giving a vivid picture of the life of the Moscow creative intelligentsia of the 1920s, are connected with Moscow impressions.
In the autumn of 1932, Shklovsky went on a trip to the construction of the White Sea-Baltic Canal . The main purpose of his trip is not to collect material (nevertheless, Shklovsky wrote extensive fragments for the collective book of 1934, glorified the construction of the canal), but a meeting with his brother, who was imprisoned, and, if possible, facilitate his fate. To the question of the security officer accompanying him, how does he feel here, Shklovsky replied: "Like a live fox in a fur shop."
Interest in Russian and, in particular, in Moscow history was reflected in Shklovsky’s stories “Matvey Komarov, a resident of Moscow” (1929), “Minin and Pozharsky” (1939), and others. Works on L. N. N were important in the work of Shklovsky . Tolstoy , F. M. Dostoevsky , S. M. Eisenstein . The son of Shklovsky died at the front of the Great Patriotic War on March 8, 1945  .
In the 1960s, interest in the works of the Shklovsky 1920s arose in the West. In 1962, he visited Italy as part of a writer's delegation.
V. B. Shklovsky died on December 5, 1984 . He was buried in Moscow at the Kuntsevo Cemetery .
The ideas of the formal school in literary studies, the foundation of which was laid by Shklovsky, made a revolution in science - even Leon Trotsky noted that “through the efforts of Shklovsky, the merit is not small! - the theory of art, and partly the art itself from the state of alchemy finally transferred to the position of chemistry "  .
The most important scientific discoveries of Shklovsky include the concept of alienation introduced by him - an unexpected fresh look at what has already become customary as the basis of the artistic effect in various types of art - and, in the field of the theory of artistic prose, the distinction of plot and story , that is, the story itself and the construction of this story [ 11] .  .
- The first wife - Vasilisa Georgievna Shklovskaya-Kordi (1890-1977), the artist.
- son - Nikita Viktorovich Shklovsky-Kordi (1924-1945), died at the front.
- daughter - Varvara Shklovskaya-Kordi (born 1927), a physicist. She is married to, sequentially, biophysicist Efim Arsent'evich Lieberman , poet Nikolai Vasilievich Panchenko .
- The second wife (since 1956) Serafima Suok (1902-1982)   .
- George cross IV degree.
- Three Orders of the Red Banner of Labor (01/31/1939; 02/06/1963; 05/28/1973)
- Order of Friendship of Peoples (01/24/1983)
- State Prize of the USSR (1979) for the second edition of the Eisenstein book.
Addresses in Petersburg
- Nadezhdinskaya str., Ap. 33
- Saperny Lane., D. 2, apt. 33.
- 1920-1922 - DISK - Avenue of the 25th October, 15.
- The expression “on the Hamburg score” , introduced into the Russian language thanks to Shklovsky, was based on a story about non-contractual matches in Hamburg , when the fighters decided which of them was stronger for themselves and not for the public, and all this was done secretly. Apparently, these Hamburg matches - Shklovsky invention, and they never existed.
- Shklovsky, to whom M. A. Bulgakov disliked on the basis of love rivalry  , was derived by him under the name Shpolyansky in the novel “The White Guard ”, as a man with demonic sideburns who commanded a car company in Kiev and sabotaged her before the arrival of S. V Petlyury is an act really accomplished by Shklovsky, although at a different time.
- “Zoo, or Letters Not About Love” is based on a partly fictional, partly real correspondence of Shklovsky who is in love with Berlin with Berlin E. Triolet , sister of L. Y. Brik . Several letters written by her. After a while she will become a famous French writer and wife of L. Aragon . M. Gorky , who has read her letters in “Zoo”, will advise her to write books.
- In addition, Viktor Shklovsky was bred as a hero or as the prototype for the following works: the books by O. D. Forsch “The Crazy Ship” (under the name “Zhukanets”), the novel by V.A. Kaverin “The Scandalist, or Evenings on Vasilevsky Island” ( “Nekrylov”), books by V. N. Ivanov “U” (“Andreishin”). According to the researchers, he was also the prototype of Serbinov from the novel “Chevengur” by A. P. Platonov and Lgovskiy  from the novel-poem “Orthography” by Dmitry Bykov.
- The name of the heroine Suok of the novel “Three Fat Men” by Yu. K. Olesha is actually a surname. This surname belonged to Olesha’s wife, Olga Gustavovna, before marriage. And her two sisters married Shklovsky and E. G. Bagritsky : Shklovsky married Seraphim Gustavovna (1902-1982) in 1956, and Bagritsky married Lydia. At first, Seraphima herself was the common-law wife of Olesha (the soulless doll is she), and since 1922, V. I. Narbut , and after N. I. Khardzhiev, and only then Shklovsky. It was derived as the “friend of the key”, “friend” in the novel by V.P. Kataev “My diamond crown”. Shklovsky was also married to the artist Vasilisa Georgievna Shklovskaya-Kordi (1890-1977).
- Bohemian created VAPP , who accredited 3,000 people to writers (from a speech).
- When we give way to the bus, we do it not out of politeness (according to B. Sarnov) .
- Love is a play. With short acts and long intervals. The most difficult thing is to learn how to behave during intermission (“The Third Factory”) .
- In order to know your heart, you need to know a little anatomy ("Leo Tolstoy") .
- A ladder of literary associations leads to painted doors. The staircase exists this one while you walk (“The Third Factory”) .
- As for electricity, telephone and bath, the restroom is in 100 fathoms (“The Third Factory”) .
- The Soviet government has taught literature to understand the shades of shit.
- We receive money not for labor, but for the difficulties with which we receive them.
- Words free the soul from closeness ("On the theory of prose")
List of Works
- Collected Works in 3 vols., M., 1973-74
- Favorites, in 2 vols., M., 1983
- "The Resurrection of the Word" , 1914. Theoretical work
- Meetings , 1944
- "The second of May after October." Historical prose
- "In Yasnaya Polyana". Historical prose
- Hamburg Account , 1928.
- "Hamburg account: Articles, memoirs, essay (1914-1933)", M., 1990
- Diary , M., Soviet Writer, 1939. Collection of articles
- "Dostoevsky" , 1971. Article
- "The life of the artist Fedotov", 1936
- "Once upon a time . " , 1964. Memoirs
- "Life of the bishop's servant", L., "Ed. Writers, 1931 Historical Prose
- "Pros and cons. Notes on Dostoevsky , 1957
- " Notes on Pushkin's prose" , M., 1937
- "Notes on the prose of the Russian classics" , 1953, 2nd ed. 1955
- “For 60 years. Cinema Works, 1985
- “For forty years. Articles about cinema " , 1965
- "Mustard" . Fantastic novel (co-authored with Vs. Ivanov ), 1925
- “Art as welcome”, 1917 . Article
- "Historical novels and stories" , 1958. Collection
- “How to write scripts”, M.-L. GIHL, 1931
- "Captain Fedotov", L., "Soviet Writer", 1936
- "Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky"
- "The end of the campaign", M., "Fire", 1925
- "A brief but reliable story about a nobleman Bolotov", L., "Ed. writers, 1930
- " Leo Tolstoy . " M .: Young Guard, 1963.
- "Literature and cinema" , 1923. Collection
- "Marco Polo scout", M., "Young Guard, 1931
- "Matvey Komarov, a resident of the city of Moscow" , 1929. Tale
- Minin and Pozharsky , 1940. Historical prose.
- » Winder. About the film trades. The book is not for filmmakers. "M.-L., 1927
- "On the masters of the old . " Historical prose.
- “ On Mayakovsky ” , 1940. Memoirs
- "On poetry and abstruse language", 1916. Article
- "On the sun, flowers and love"
- “ On the theory of prose ” , 1925, 2nd ed. 1929. Theoretical work.
- "On the theory of prose", 1983
- “Tale of prose. Reflections and analyzes " , 1966. Based on the processing of old writings:
- “Fiction. Reflections and analyzes " , 1959
- "Notes on the prose of the Russian classics" , 1953
- "Pros and cons. Notes on Dostoevsky , 1957
- "Notes on Pushkin's prose" , 1937
- “The Tale of the Artist Fedotov” , 1936, ( “Fedotov” in the ZhZL series, 1965).
- “Feminine” , L., “Ed. writers, 1930
- "The quest for optimism" , M., "Federation", 1931
- "Portrait" . Historical prose
- “Five people familiar” , Baku, “Zakkniga”, 1927
- "Deployment of the plot" , 1921. Theoretical work.
- “Revolution and Front” , Petrograd, 1921. Memoirs.
- "Rozanov, 1921. Article
- "Lead draw" , 1914. Poetic collection
- " Sentimental Journey ", L., "Athenaeum", 1924
- "Summer is ripe"
- "The plot as a style phenomenon", Petrograd, "OPOZAZ", 1921
- “Bowstring. On the dissimilarity of the similar " , 1970. Theoretical work
- "Technique writing craft" , 1927
- " Third Factory ", M. "Artel of Writers" Circle "", 1926 Autobiographical prose.
- ““ Tristram Shandy “Stern and the theory of the novel “ , Petrograd, “OPOZAZ“, 1921. Theoretical work
- " Good luck and defeat Maxim Gorky" , [Tiflis], "Zakkniga", 1926
- Knight's move , Collection of articles. Moscow — Berlin, Helikon, 1923
- “Chulkov and Levshin” , 1933.
- Eisenstein 1973
- “The Energy of Error” , 1981
- “Zoo. Letters are not about love or the Third Eloise , Berlin, Helikon, 1923, L., 1924, 1929
Many of them are written in collaboration.
- The Prostitute , 1926 (dir. Oleg Frohlich )
- “ Wings of a slave ”, 1926
- “ By law ”, 1926
- "Traitor", 1926. Director - Abram Rрамm .
- " The Third Meshchanskaya ", 1927. Director - Abram Rom.
- “Ukhaby”, 1927. The director - Abram Rom.
- "The Jews and the Land ", 1927. Documentary.
- Ice House, 1927
- "Two armored cars", 1928
- “House on Trubnaya” , 1928. Together with Erdman et al.
- Cossacks (Georgia), 1928
- The Gadfly (Georgia), 1928
- The Captain's Daughter, 1928
- The Last Attraction, 1928
- Turksib , 1929. Documentary
- "American" (Georgia), 1930.
- “Father” (Georgia), 1930
- Three Bears , 1937. Cartoon.
- " Three Fat Men ", 1963. Cartoon.
- " The Tale of the Golden Cockerel ", 1967. Cartoon
- “ Young People Wins ”, (Georgia), 1928.
- “ Dead House ”, 1932. In addition to co-writing the script, Shklovsky starred in the role of Petrashevsky.
- " Horizon ", 1932. Director - L. V. Kuleshov
- " White Sea-Baltic Waterway ", 1933
- “ Minin and Pozharsky ”, 1939. Director - V.I. Pudovkin .
- “ Alisher Navoi ”, 1948 (with Alex Speshnev )
- “The Distant Bride ”, 1948
- Chuck and Huck , 1953
- " Gadfly ", 1955. In ch. Roles - O. A. Strizhenov .
- Dohund, 1957
- " Cossacks ", 1961. Director - V. M. Pronin .
- " The Ballad of Bering and His Friends ", 1970
Shklovsky spoke as a narrator in the following serials:
- “Once upon a time” (1972)
- "A Word about Leo Tolstoy" (1978)
TV shows about Shklovsky
- The program "Cultural layer" on Shklovsky on the Fifth Channel (St. Petersburg)
- Documentary film “Victor Shklovsky and Roman Jacobson. Life is like a novel ” (director Vladimir Nepevny)
- Viktor Shklovsky - Encyclopedia of the national cinema (inaccessible link)
- Shklovsky, Victor Borisovich // Encyclopedia " Krugosvet ".
- Shklovsky shorty, or Aphorisms on Shklovsky
- Reasonable V.A. Contemporary memories about V. B. Shklovsky
- V. Shklovsky. Letters to the grandson
- Viktor Shklovsky on the Project1917 site
- Viktor Shklovsky in the project "Oral History"
- Sarnov B.M. Poor flax. From the memoirs of V. B. Shklovsky
- Andronikov I.L. Shklovsky. In the book: Irakli Andronikov Selected works in two volumes. T. 2 (inaccessible link) , - M .: 1975.
- Grits TS. Victor Shklovsky's creativity. (About the "third factory"). - Baku: Tia. Omzaka, 1927. - 38 p.
- Gukovsky G. Shklovsky as a historian of literature // Star. - 1930. - No 1.
- Dobin E.S. Viktor Shklovsky - plot analyst. In the book: The plot and reality. - L .: 1976.
- Kaverin V. A. “I raise my hand and give up.” In the book. : Epilogue. - M .: 1997
- Kalinin I. Viktor Shklovsky: Reception // Formal Method: An Anthology of Russian Modernism / Comp. S. Ushakin. - Moscow; Yekaterinburg: A Cabinet Scientist, 2016. –T. 1. - p. 63-312. - 956 s. - ISBN 978-5-7525-2995-5 .
- Levin E. Victor Shklovsky - theorist of cinema // Art of Cinema. - 1970. - No 7.
- Panchenko O. Victor Shklovsky: text - myth - reality. - Szczecin, 1997.
- Russian Soviet writers, prose writers. Bibliographical index, vol. 6, part 1, - M., 1969.
- Sarnov B. Eyes of the artist // New World. - 1964. - No 7.
- Eikhenbaum B. About Victor Shklovsky, in the book: My temporary worker. - L .: 1929.
- Radovlav, Revolution is Evolution: a Trope in Šklovskijʼs Literary History // Russian Literature, 69,2-4 (15 February-15 May 2011), 209–238.
- Urban T. Russian writers in Berlin in the 20s of the twentieth century; St. Petersburg 2014, p. 233-242.
- BNF ID : open data platform
- V. B. Shklovsky “Sentimental Journey”: Boris Vladimirovich Shklovsky came from Uman from a forester’s family, grew up in Elisavetgrad . His mother (grandmother of Viktor Shklovsky) published a book of memoirs in Yiddish , ending with a period of civil war .
- V. B. Shklovsky, “The Sentimental Journey”: Karl Bundel was a gardener at the Smolny Institute and the son of a Wenden pastor; his wife Anna Semyastyanovna Kamenogradskaya was the daughter of a deacon from Tsarskoye Selo.
- Shklovsky Vladimir Borisovich
- V. Shklovsky. Letters to the grandson
- Directory "All Petrograd" in 1922, p.615-616.
- V. B. Shklovsky. Letters to M. Gorky (1917-1923). Notes and text preparation A. Yu. Galushkina. - “De Visu”, 1993, № 1.
- Despite the self-critical title and quotations from Marx, the article is not perceived as an exclusively penitent by contemporary literary critics. So, Alexander Galushkin believes that by formally recognizing the primacy of the Marxist method, Shklovsky only wanted to protect himself and his formalist colleagues from attacks in the press ( Alexander Galushkin. "And so, having stood on the bones, we will blow the collection ..." To the story of the failed revival of the Opojaz in 1928 —1930 // New Literary Review. 2000. No. 44 )
- Konstantin Paustovsky : “We are sad in Lavrushinsky - on March 8, Nikita (Kotya), the son of Shklovsky, died in East Prussia”. (Frezinsky B.Ya. The Fates of the Serapions: Portraits and Plots. Moscow: Academic Project, 2003. P. 170)
- L. Trotsky. Literature and revolution. - M .: Red nov, 1923. - p. 119.
- I. A. Pilshchikov . The legacy of the Russian formal school and modern philology // Anthropology of Culture, vol. 5. - p. 320.
- Russian formalism and its influence on intellectuals of the whole world / Culture News / Tvkultura.ru
- Pages of history: love, passion and betrayal ...
- Maria Kotova, Oleg Lekmanov - PLAINING FOOT ARCHIVE Archived January 15, 2012.
- Facts about Russia
- Mikhail Nazarenko. Poetics of duality in the novel “Spelling” by Dmitry Bykova . All-Ukrainian Exhibition Center “Kyiv University” (2004).