Cascais ( port. Cascais ; [ kɐʃ'kaiʃ ]) is a city and seaport in Portugal , the center of the municipality of the same name as part of the Lisbon district. The population is 33.3 thousand inhabitants (city), 206.5 thousand inhabitants (municipality). The city and municipality is part of the Lisbon region and the Greater Lisbon subregion. Included in the agglomeration of Greater Lisbon . According to the old administrative division, it was part of the province of Estremadura .
|Internal division||6 districts|
|The mayor||Antonio Kapushu|
|History and Geography|
|Timezone||UTC0 , summer UTC + 1|
|Population||206,479  people ( 2011 )|
|Density||2119.9 people / km²|
|Telephone code||+351 214|
The city is located 25 km west of the center of Lisbon on the shores of the Atlantic Ocean .
The municipality borders:
- in the north - Sintra municipality
- in the east - Oeiras Municipality
- in the south - the Atlantic Ocean
- in the west - the Atlantic Ocean
The municipality of Cascais includes the following fregeisia (districts): Alcabideche , Carcavelos , Cascais , Parede , San Domingos de Rana , Estoril .
The city is connected to Lisbon by an electric train line, as well as a freeway, bus lines connect Cascais with Sintra and the capital's airport  . Near the city is the municipal airport of Cascais.
The emergence of a fishing settlement on the site of the current city dates back to the XII century, it is known that a century later, Cascais, run from Sintra, supplied Lisbon with fish. Cascais gained independence from Sintra in 1364 , which is considered the year the city was founded. The village and its environs were in the possession of a local lord, the most famous of which was considered Joao das Regras (d. In 1404)  .
During the Middle Ages, Cascais lived mainly due to fishing, as well as agriculture (olives, grapes, and grains were grown in the vicinity); fishing vessels heading towards Lisbon also stopped here. Due to its geographical location, at the beginning of the Tagus River estuary, Cascais became an important fortification that covered the empire’s capital from the sea  . Around 1488, a small fortress was built here, but it could not restrain the Spaniards, led by the Duke of Alba , who captured Cascais in 1580 during the conflict that led to the conclusion of the Iberian Union . Later, towards the end of the 16th century, the Cascais citadel was substantially rebuilt by Philip I (Philip II of Spain), acquiring typical Renaissance features  .
The Lisbon earthquake of 1755 destroyed a significant part of the buildings of Cascais. Around 1774, through the efforts of the Marquis de Pombal , a royal wool factory was founded here, which lasted until the 19th century. In 1807, during the invasion of Napoleonic troops in Portugal, Cascais was occupied by the French; in Cascais, General Junot was stationed for some time  .
Subsequently, the settlement stagnated until the kings of Portugal, who traveled to Cascais from 1870 to 1908, chose it as a summer residence. The highest attention was brought to the city by such benefits of civilization as electricity (1878, the first time in the country), casinos, sports grounds, improved roads to Lisbon and Sintra, the railway from the capital (1889)  . Then in Cascais began to appear luxurious mansions of the nobility. In 1896, the last king of Portugal, Carlos I, founded the country's first oceanographic laboratory in the Cascais fortress  .
During the Second World War, Cascais, due to its aristocracy and neutral status of Portugal, became a refuge for a number of members of royal families expelled from their countries, including representatives of the august families of Spain, Italy and Bulgaria  .
|Population of Cascais Municipality (1801—2011)|
|6052||5679||9463||22 932||59 617||141 498||153,294||170,683||181 444||185 279||206 479|
Among the architectural monuments of the city stands the church Igreja da Assuncao (Assumption of the Virgin), decorated with azulejo tiles that survived the earthquake of 1755  . There is a museum of the sea, in the picturesque city park there is a museum-library of Count Castro Guimaraes, which stores a rich collection of books, paintings, sculptures, tiles. On the cape in the southern part of the city is an old fort (XVII century), closed to the public and now “protecting” the marina for expensive yachts. Tourists can also be attracted by the morning fish market and picturesque natural grottoes knocked out on the coast by waves  .
In the center of Cascais
- Lisbon District
- Lisbon County Municipalities
- Districts of Lisbon County
- Indicators of physical geography . Instituto Nacional de Estatística (22 May 2014). - Indicators of the physical geography of Portugal on the website of the National Institute of Statistics. Date of treatment October 21, 2015.
- Censos 2011 Resultados Definitivos - Região Lisboa (Port.) (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Estatística (2012). - The final results of the Lisbon County Census (2011) on the website of the National Institute of Statistics. Date of treatment October 23, 2015.
- Matthew Hancock. Lisbon . - Rough Guides, 2004 .-- ISBN ISBN 1-84353-315-4 .
- Travel Portugal for Smartphones and Mobile Devices - Illustrated Guide . - SoundTells, LLC, 2011.