Prince Esper Esperovich Ukhtomsky ( August 14, 1861 , Oranienbaum - November 12, 1921 , Detskoe Selo ) - Russian diplomat, orientalist, publicist, poet, translator. He is known for his “East Philophile” position in the press and social life of pre-revolutionary Russia. One of the close associates of Nicholas II .
|Prince Esper Esperovich Ukhtomsky|
|Date of Birth|
|Place of Birth||Oranienbaum|
|Date of death|
|Place of death||Children's Village|
|Occupation||diplomat, orientalist, publicist, poet, translator|
|Father||Esper Alekseevich Ukhtomsky|
|Mother||Eugene (Jenny) Alekseevna Greig|
|Children||Diy Esperovich Ukhtomsky|
The clan of the princes of Ukhtomsky is the branch of the princes of Belozersky - a branch of the house of the Rurikovich , including Yuri Dolgoruky and Khan Baty among the ancestors of the female line. The father of the future diplomat, Esper Alekseevich (1834 or 1832-1885) - naval officer, participant in the defense of Sevastopol , circumnavigation of the Vityaz corvette and I.S. Unkovsky’s campaign on the frigate "Askold" in Nagasaki , captain 1st rank (1870), since 1881, assistant naval agent in Austria and Italy, one of the founders of the Russian Eastern Shipping Company Partnership , which operated flights to India and China . Mother Jenny Alekseevna (née Greig, 1835–1870) was the granddaughter of the admiral of the era of Catherine II , the hero of the Chesme battle, C. C. Greig , an ethnic Scotsman.
From 1873 to 1880 he studied at the St. Petersburg Institute of History and Philology  .
He graduated from the historical and philological faculty of St. Petersburg University . He was engaged in the study of Slavic philology and philosophy by M.I. Vladislavlev and V.S. Solovyov , with whom friendly and creative ties developed. Classmate D.I. Shakhovsky , S. Volkonsky , Zabello . It was thanks to V. S. Solovyev that the first poetic work by E. E. Ukhtomsky dedicated to the 100th anniversary of V. A. Zhukovsky (1883) appeared in the Rus newspaper by I. S. Aksakov .
During his studies, he became interested in Buddhism and compiled a bibliography of works on the history, religion, culture and art of the peoples of Central , South Asia and the Far East .
After graduation, he entered the service of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Department of Spiritual Affairs of Foreign Confessions. In the period from 1886 to 1890. was sent several times to Mongolia , China , Transbaikalia to study foreigners - Buddhists . Descriptions of trips published in the " Russian Herald " and other publications.
Voyage of Tsarevich Nikolai to the East
In 1890-1891, Prince Ukhtomsky accompanied the prince, the future Nicholas II , on his journey to the East on the cruiser " Memory of Azov ". After returning from travel, E. Э. Ukhtomsky was elected a member of the Russian Geographical Society .
He described his travel impressions and observations in the book “Journey to the East of the Crown Prince’s Heir”. The first volume, entitled “Journey to the East of His Imperial Highness Sovereign Heir Tsesarevich. 1890-1891 ”was published in 1893; second and third volumes - in 1895 and 1897. already under the title "Travel of the Sovereign Emperor Nicholas II to the East (in 1890-1891)." The success of the book was contributed by the text of E. E. Ukhtomsky, containing information on the history, ethnography and religion of the peoples of the East, and illustrations by N. N. Karazin . Immediately after the publication of The Journey, it was published in English, German and French.
A number of his manuscripts remained unpublished. The collection of Buddhist antiquities, collected by E. E. Ukhtomsky, was considered before the revolution of 1917 the most complete collection of Buddhism in Eastern Siberia . In 1900, this collection was exhibited at the World Exhibition in Paris, where it received a gold medal, and served as the main material for the classical study of Albert Grünwedel on Buddhist mythology. After requisition by the Soviet government, it formed an important part of the eastern collection of the Hermitage and other museums in St. Petersburg.
From 1896 to 1910, Prince Ukhtomsky was the chairman of the board of the Russian-Chinese Bank , from the late 1890s to 1905 he headed the board of the Manchurian Railway .
From 1896 to February 1917 he was the publisher of St. Petersburg Gazette . In his editorial and journalistic activities, E. Ukhtomsky proved himself to be a supporter of the monarchist system, but at the same time he distanced himself from the conservatism of the Moscow Gazette and Citizen, ardently defended the principles of legality and humanity, spoke out against administrative arbitrariness, defended religious tolerance and local self-government .
The St. Petersburg Gazette, under his leadership, has become the most important print organ of the Russian liberal bureaucracy, oriented towards the Witte line. Here in the 1890s and the beginning of the 20th century, Solovyov's friends D. N. Tsertelev and S. N. Trubetskoy were actively publishing. In 1903-1904, A. Stolypin was the editor of St. Petersburg Gazette. On November 18, 1896, Soloviev spoke in the Ukhtomsky newspaper with a program article entitled “The World of East and West,” which most clearly reflected his “liberal-imperial” views of those years.
After Solovyov’s death in 1900, Ukhtomsky became one of the leaders of the Solovyov’s society, regularly discussing “urgent issues of faith and foreignness,” including the need to equalize rights and stop repressions against Dukhobors and Molokans, Jews and Armenians. 
During the events in the Far East, Prince Ukhtomsky, generally inclined to idealize Asian life and transfer the center of Russian historical life to Asia, spoke in the brochure: "Towards Events in China" and other articles with the idea of an alliance between Russia and China.
“There is a huge gap between Western Europe and the Asian peoples, but there is no such gap between the Russians and Asians”  .
“There is no other outcome for the All-Russian power: either to become what it has been called to be from time immemorial (a world power combining the West with the East), or ingloriously take the path of decline, because Europe itself will ultimately crush us with external superiority their own, and not by us, awakened Asian peoples will be even more dangerous than Western foreigners ”  .
After the revolution, E. У. Ukhtomsky left St. Petersburg for Tsarskoye Selo, where he lived in solitude on Srednaya ul. 34, making a living as a translator. After the death of his son, he wrote a letter to the historian S. F. Platonov (11/10/1919) with a request “to present me with the opportunity to get a job on the archival part <...> to save half-finished books from destruction”.
According to the certificate issued in 1920, E. У. Ukhtomsky was an assistant custodian of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Museum , a researcher at the Academy of the History of Material Culture , and also an employee of the Pushkin House , Museum of Anthropology and the Russian Committee for the Study of Asia. S. M. Volkonsky wrote in his memoirs that in recent years E. У. Ukhtomsky “was engaged in research on the Russian history of the specific period”, that is, he worked on the subjects of the school of Sergei Fedorovich Platonov .
In international politics
E.E.Ukhtomsky was accused by some of promoting an aggressive Russian policy that led to the victory of Japan in the Russo-Japanese War : he allegedly brought him closer to Tsar A.M. Bezobrazov and supported the war party inspired by him, whose interests led to the rejection of the division of spheres of influence Japan and Russia in Korea and Manchuria ), which was the reason for the war 
In Russian Public Thought
E. E. Ukhtomsky adjoined the Slavophile group, which, relying on the “East”, was not just an alternative to the moral dominance of the “West”, but the coveted future of Russia. Despite Ukhtomsky’s denial of accusations of pan-Mongolism, researchers call him “the first Eurasian”  , etc. This appeal to the East even rejected his teacher Solovyov: for Ukhtomsky, the defender of the rights of the Buryat people, the most important task for Russia was to protect the East World from the encroachments of the colonial powers and become a guarantor and defender of his interests. Moreover, Prince Ukhtomsky often left behind-the-scenes deep-seated internal problems that threatened the Far Eastern equilibrium ...
So, Ukhtomsky, unlike Solovyov, negatively assessed Russia's participation in the International Liberation Expedition of the eight powers in 1900 against the Boxer (Ihethuan) uprising in China, and did not understand the ominous threat posed from the Iethuan  .
In “Three Conversations”, Solovyov spoke out against neo-Slavophilism by the mouth of one of the characters, indicating that his representatives from preaching “Greco-Slavic identity” go on to profess “some kind of Sinism, Buddhism, Tibetism and any Indian-Mongol Asian”, which may be a criticism of E.E. Ukhtomsky's hobby for eastern culture and religion. 
Use of the image in fiction
- The only work in which E. У. Ukhtomsky is the main character is the novel by V. B. Korobov “Far Eastern Expeditions of Prince E. У. Ukhtomsky ...” . He took third place in the “Prose” category of the literary contest “Catch” (spring 2000). In the center of the novel, made in the form of historical, religious, historical and literary research, is the Book of Yungle Mansurov , a mystical text allegedly discovered by E. E. Ukhtomsky in the Tsugol datsan in 1891, and its radical influence on the subsequent Russian poetic tradition.
- The historical novel by Aradan Angarkhaev “The Teacher of the Dalai Lama. About the life of Aghvan Dorzhiev ” , published in the journal“ Siberian Lights ”(2007, No. 12), mentions E. E. Ukhtomsky regarding the figure of Nicholas II as a conductor of East Philosophical ideas, a supplier to the court of Buryat doctors and others, along with Agan Dorzhiev, Witte, Ungraded and Rasputin .
- In the historical novel by Gennady Melnikov “Having come to the Eastern country ...” (1986-1989), E. Ukhtomsky expresses his position of Russia’s appeal to China to Sergey Witte, which Witte perceives as transmitting the views of the prince and his entourage - and, in turn, is infected with the idea of a strong Russia's economic presence in China.
- In the autobiographical poem novel by Aghvan Dorzhiev “Entertaining notes - a description of a trip around the world” Ukhtomsky is mentioned as a guide to Tsar Nicholas II -
Arrived in the capital city of Petersburg. [There] having established contact with the cunning Ustomsky, he received the audience of the king. Asked for advice on what steps should be taken so that England does not take over the distant and remote country of Tibet.
Family and Children
He was married to Matryona (Maria) Vasilyevna Vasilyeva, the daughter of a peasant. His son Ukhtomsky, Diy Esperovich (1886-1918) - a graduate of the Alexander Lyceum  , an ethnographer-anthropologist, traveler, since 1908 an employee of the Russian Museum. Diy Esperovich was married to Natalya Dmitrievna (1892-1942), the daughter of the philosopher and poet Prince Dmitry Nikolayevich Tsertelev (1852-1911). D. E. Ukhtomsky served in the ranks of the Red Cross during the First World War, died of tuberculosis. D.E. Ukhtomsky had three children: Dmitry, Alexei (1913-1954, artist) and Marianne (1917-1924). Dmitry Dievich Ukhtomsky (1912-1993) - during the Second World War - a military intelligence officer in Iran, a major photo artist and photojournalist. 
- From the Kalmyk steppe to Bukhara. St. Petersburg, 1891.
- On the status of the missionary issue in Transbaikalia. St. Petersburg, 1892 .-- 48 p.
- To the events in China. On the relations of the West and Russia to the East. St. Petersburg, 1900 .-- 87 p.
- From Chinese letters. St. Petersburg, 1901 .-- 31 p.
- From past. SPb., 1902.
- From the realm of Lamaism. To the British campaign in Tibet. St. Petersburg, 1904. 129 pages (a book, in particular, found in the Yasnaya Polyana Library of L. N. Tolstoy)
- From travel notes and memories. St. Petersburg, 1904.
- Before a formidable future. To the Russian-Japanese clash. St. Petersburg, 1904. - 28 p.
- In the mists of hoary antiquity. To the Varangian question. Anglo-Russian communication in distant centuries. - St. Petersburg, 1907. - 43 p.
- Journey to the East of His Imperial Highness Sovereign Heir Tsesarevich. 1890-1891. Author-publisher E.E. Ukhtomsky. Illustrated by N. N. Karazin. T. I. St. Petersburg-Leipzig, F. A. Brockhaus, 1893; T. II. Leipzig, F.A. Brockhaus, 1895; T. III. 1897.
- Princes Ukhtomsky
- Buddhism in Buryatia
- Interest in the East at different times was shared
- Badmaev, Peter - Tibetan doctor
- Dorzhiev, Aghvan - the founder of a Buddhist temple in St. Petersburg
- Tynisson, Karl - the initiator of Buddhism in Estonia and Latvia
- Ungern-Sternberg, Roman Fedorovich von - White Guard, monarchist
- Significant impact at different times
- Soloviev, Vladimir Sergeevich
- Witte, Sergey Yulievich
- Tolstoy, Lev Nikolaevich
- Memorial book of the gymnasium under the Imperial St. Petersburg. Historical and Philosophical Institute 1870-1895. - SPb., 1895. - S. 32.
- Mezhuev, Boris. Vl. S. Soloviev and St. Petersburg society of the 1890s. To the background of “imperial liberalism” on the Russian Archipelago website
- S. S. Oldenburg. The reign of Emperor Nicholas II. Rostov n / A, 1998.S. 102, cit. according to V.E. Golenishchev-Kutuzov. Russian intelligentsia and the East
- S. S. Oldenburg. The reign of Emperor Nicholas II. Rostov n / A, 1998.S. 103, cit. according to V.E. Golenishchev-Kutuzov. Russian intelligentsia and the East
- Schimmelpenninck van der Oye D. Toward the Rising Sun. Russian Ideologies of Empire and the Path to War with Japan, Dekalb, Northern Illinois University Press, 2001, p. 329 on  Laruelle, Marlene . “Yellow danger” in the works of Russian nationalists of the beginning of the century. Russian-Japanese war. A look through a century. October 11, 2004, Polit.ru
- Polonskaya L. R. Between Scylla and Charybdis (The Russia-East-West Problem in the Second Half of the 19th Century: K. Leontyev, E. Ukhtomsky, Vl. Soloviev) // Moscow Oriental Studies. Essays, research, development. In memory of N. A. Ivanov. M., 1997. S. 271 - 285.
- Ihethuan (Boxing) uprising was organized by the White Lotus faction of the totalitarian sect. On June 23, 1900 , the Ihe-Tuan Chinese attacked the builders of the CER and started massacres, the destruction of the railway track and station buildings ... The uprising continued until 1901 inclusive.
- prof. A. Ya. Chadayev, Forgotten Heroes of the First World War // Report in the OBIB lecture hall - Dubna, October 9, 2014.
Ihe-Tuan (Boxing) uprising - it was a genocide of the Christian population of China. They were betrayed to the most painful executions!
- Memorial book of lyceum students. Edition of the Meeting of Course Representatives of the Imperial Alexander Lyceum, St. Petersburg: Printing House of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, 1911. P. 182
- Genealogical Bulletin No. 5, 2001
- Ukhtomsky, Esper Esperovich at the Rodovod . Tree of ancestors and descendants
- Biographical articles
- Shundalov I. Yu. Esper Esperovich Ukhtomsky, 1861-1921 , link up to February 10, 2008.
- Ukhtomsky (Prince Esper Esperovich) according to the Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron (1890-1907) on Rulex.ru, the link is valid on February 10, 2008.
- Tsesarevich's journey
- Diplomatic and public role
- Golenishcheva-Kutuzova V.E. Russian intelligentsia and the East.
- Mezhuev, Boris. Modeling the concept of "national interest". On the example of the Far Eastern policy of Russia at the end of the 19th - beginning of the 20th centuries. Russian archipelago.
- Legacy, documents
- Lukyanov S. M. Recording of conversations with E. E. Ukhtomsky. Publication by A. N. Shakhanov on the website of the FEB Russian Literature and Folklore
- Description of the Foundation of E. E. Ukhtomsky in the Pushkin House (314)
- Letters from Leo Tolstoy to E. E. Ukhtomsky and with a mention of Ukhtomsky can be found here: L. N. Tolstoy, Complete Works in 90 volumes, Academic Anniversary Edition, Volume 71 (Letters 1898), State Publishing House of Fiction, Moscow - 1954 , see . also other volumes. Correspondence is being activated in connection with the defense of Tolstoy by the Molokans and the Dukhobors , and the subsequent idea of resettling the Dukhobors outside Russia.
- Tolstaya S. A. Diaries. T. 1. M., 1978, p. 405–406 - about the visit of E. E. Ukhtomsky to Yasnaya Polyana
- Leonov G.A.E. E. Ukhtomsky. On the history of the Lamaist collection of the State Hermitage // Buddhism and the literary and artistic creation of the peoples of Central Asia. Repl. ed. R. E. Pubaev . Novosibirsk, 1985. S. 101-116.
- Suvorov V.V. Prince E. E. Ukhtomsky on the state structure of Russia during the revolution of 1905-1907. // Power. 2011, No. 1. S.137-139.
- Khamaganova EA Princes Esper and Dii Ukhtomsky and Their Contribution to the Study of Buddhist Culture (Tibet, Mongolia and Russia) // Tibet, Past and Present. Tibetan Studies. PIATS. 2000: Proceedings of the Ninth Seminar of the International Tibetan Studies. Leiden, 2000. Brill, Leiden-Boston-Koln, 2002, pp. 307-326.