The peace treaty in Saint-Germain-en-Laye dated June 19 (old style) or June 29 (new style) 1679 is a peace treaty between France and the Elector of Brandenburg  . He again transferred to the ally of France, Sweden, its possessions of Bremen-Ferden and Swedish Pomerania , acquired by Brandenburg during the Scone War   . Sweden ratified the treaty on July 28, 1679. 
|Peace Treaty in Saint-Germain-en-Laye|
Saint Germain Palace
|date of signing||June 29, 1679|
|• a place||Saint-Germain-en-Laye|
Friedrich Wilhelm ILouis XIV
This agreement, according to some, is considered the "worst political defeat" of Elector Frederick William I  . He was forced to surrender to Sweden, under pressure from France, part of what he considered his legitimate Pomeranian legacy  , despite the fact that he defeated them in a four-year campaign.
Sweden entered into an alliance with France in April 1672.  At that time, Great Britain , Elector Brandenburg, the Netherlands and Denmark were hostile to Sweden  . Leopold I, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire , entered into an alliance with the Netherlands and Spain against France on August 30, 1673 and declared war at the beginning of 1674  . Subsequently, Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg, joined the anti-French union  .
In support of the French Louis XIV, Charles XI of Sweden swept into Brandenburg in 1674, but in 1675 suffered a decisive defeat at the Battle of Fairbellin   . Denmark then invaded Swedish Scania  .
In the Scandinavian war that followed, Brandenburg occupied Swedish possessions in Northern Germany, Swedish Pomerania (except Rügen) and Bremen-Ferden, as well as Kurland  ; Denmark occupied Rugen  , but was defeated in Scania at the battles of Lund (1676) and Landskron (1677)  .
After the Nimwegen negotiations (1678/1679) ended, the Franco-Dutch war ended with France again able to support Sweden  and invaded the Duchy of Brandenburg on the Lower Rhine  . Brandenburg, deprived of troops in the area and deprived of allies under the Nimwegen Accords, had no choice but to make peace with France through its conquests in Sweden   . Similarly, Denmark-Norway was supposed to conclude an agreement in Fontainebleau with Sweden in September 1679  .
Brandenburg's ally, Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, made a separate peace with Louis XIV in France in February 1679, confirming the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 , which included the transfer of Bremen-Ferden and Swedish Pomerania to Sweden  . Leopold did not want Frederick Wilhelm to become the “new vandal king in the Baltic states”  , and he did not want the Brandenburg-Pomeranian conflict to interfere with his negotiations with France  .
Frederick William I forced his diplomats to offer France unconditional support, including military support and support against the Holy Roman Emperor , in exchange for Louis XIV allowing him to preserve Swedish Pomerania  . In addition, Friedrich Wilhelm I directly offered Sweden “several tons of gold” for Swedish Pomerania and military support against Denmark-Norway  .
Louis XIV, however, had neither interest nor military necessity to fulfill any Brandenburg desire  . On the contrary, he was strongly interested in ensuring that Sweden did not lose any territory as a result of its alliance and the support of France  . Friedrich Wilhelm was informed that Sweden will lose Stettin “no more than Stockholm ” and that “first we [France] will take Lippstadt , Minden , which will not cause us any problems, then Halberstadt and Magdeburg will fall to us one by one, and finally we will reach Berlin ”  Having occupied the Brandenburg Cleves and besieged Minden, France also refused another offer of Friedrich Wilhelm to cede his provinces on the Rhine in exchange for Swedish Pomerania  .
On June 29, 1679, Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg, signed the agreement  , thereby returning Bremen-Ferden  and most of Sweden's Pomerania Sweden   in exchange for the comforting indemnities of Louis XIV  [14 ] from France and the return of East Frisia  . The French indemnity in Brandenburg was set at 300,000 thalers, which were due over the next two years.  Subsequently, France managed to force Brandenburg to accept this amount in order to pay off 900,000 thalers of French debts  .
Elector Brandenburg further received the former Swedish eastern bank of the Oder , with the exception of Gollnov and Damm  . Gollnov was laid in Brandenburg thanks to the 50,000 thalers gained from Sweden in 1693. Swedish Pomerania was to be cleared of the Brandenburg occupying forces within three months  .
The treaty also contained a clause that prohibited the Dutch forces from stationing a garrison in the duchy of Kleve  .
Implementation and implications
Stettin was returned to Sweden as the last Brandenburg fortress in December 1679, Denmark  , which occupied Rügen during the Skan War, concluded a separate agreement with Sweden: In the Treaty in Lund on September 26, 1679, Denmark assured that it would return Rügen to Sweden before October 20  .
As early as 1679, Brandenburg entered into a secret alliance with France: the sovereignty of Brandenburg was to be respected by France for ten years, and 100,000 livres were paid annually in exchange for the right of France to freely pass through Brandenburg territory  . This alliance was partial because of the disappointment of the Hohenzollern elector of Brandenburg, the Habsburg emperor of the Holy Roman Empire   , who approved the treaty and opposed the powerful Brandenburg  . Realizing the expansionism of France and what he called the “French yoke,” Frederick William I nevertheless came to the conclusion that “only the protection of God and the power of the [French] king can bring us security, and that the Empire and the Emperor were the first to leave We are defenseless before our enemies ”  . However, starting in 1685, Brandenburg secretly began to create new anti-French alliances  .
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