Ivan Ilyich Skoropadsky (1646 - July 3 , 1722 ) - hetman of the combined army of Zaporizhzhya on both banks of the Dnieper in 1708 - 1722 . During the Battle of Poltava, he headed the Cossack units loyal to Peter I.
|And van Ilyich Skoropadsky|
|Ukrainian Ivan Skoropadsky|
Coat of arms of Skoropadsky
|Death||July 3 (14), 1722 |
|Burial place||Gamaleevsky monastery , Shostka|
|Spouse||Anastasia Markovna Markovich|
Came from a gentry clan; his grandfather first arrived on the territory of modern Ukraine under Bogdan Khmelnitsky and was killed in 1648 at the Battle of Yellow Waters .
Educated at the Kiev-Mohyla Academy . Not earlier than 28 years of age he entered the service of a scribe in the military chancellery, looked after a bride from the Polubotkov family (Pelageya Nikiforovna) in Chernigov and, having married, remained in him; stayed as clerk for at least 10 years. About 1700 he was widowed, he soon married a second time to Nastasya Markovna (nee Markovich) ; At that time he was already under the hetman Mazepa the general bungee, and then he soon became the general esaul. Mazepa often sent him to Peter the Great with various assignments, and the tsar really liked his “simplicity”. In 1706 he was appointed an old-Duban colonel , and received one of the richest and richest districts.
Skoropadsky remained at this unit until the end of October 1708 , when he received from Hetman Mazepa a letter written on October 30 from Degtyarovka, in which he invited him
|to leave the hostile power of Moscow, from many years in its all-vicious intention to put to rest the last Cossack rights and liberties.|
Perhaps Mazepa hoped for the support of Skoropadsky, as his protege, who fell in love with him for modesty and helpfulness, awarded and nominated by him for service. But Skoropadsky did not have the slightest desire to change his position - with which he was very pleased.
The capture of Baturin ( November 2 ) somewhat eased the heavy impression of hetman treason, and immediately it was decided to start the election of a new hetman. On the 4th day, Tsar Peter himself went to Glukhov to attend the elections. The Apostle , the Mirgorod colonel, had more rights to the mace, but he had just returned from Mazepa and was “in suspicion”, then the Chernigov colonel Polubotok , but the latter seemed dangerous to the tsar, as a brave and energetic man. The third candidate was Skoropadsky. Peter stopped his attention on him, knowing him as a weak-minded person, in no case dangerous.
On November 6 , sixty-odd years old, he took over the hetman's mace. In his first hetman wagon invites
|all Ukraine to be faithful to Moscow, not flattered by the friendship of the Swedes, who, in addition to being completely alien to Ukraine, are not even neighbors with it.|
Shortly after the Battle of Poltava , on July 17 , he submitted to the Tsar an article about Little Russia, where he requested
|about the approval of rights, liberties and orders hitherto former in the Little Russian army, that the Great Russian governors should not intervene in city and regimental affairs, and would only look after “the locks”, they would not repair themselves without the Little Russian foremen, so that the garrisons would be withdrawn, placed in some Little Russian cities.|
In particular, he asked about himself as a hetman, so that the hetman would obey only the sovereign, and receive orders only on his behalf.
The final answers to these articles were given by Peter in January 1710 . The governor-governor, Prince D. M. Golitsyn , was appointed from Kiev by the government; in Glukhov , next to the hetman, the post of “sovereign minister” was established, a special official who was to be responsible to the government for the trustworthiness of the hetman and to participate in the management together with him. The first such "sovereign minister" was appointed Suzdal governor A. P. Izmailov . Great Russian regiments, which were previously under Mazepa, were given to him. Izmailov lived peacefully with the hetman, but in September of the same 1710 he had to leave his post because he did one tactless act - he and the hetman signed a letter of exhortation to the Cossacks, among which unrest and unrest, relations with traitors began. Hetman, having learned that they wanted to change Izmailov, asked the then chancellor Golovkin to leave Izmailov with him as before, assuring that he was living with him, satisfied with his prudent advice. But Izmayilov was recalled, and two were appointed in his place: the duma clerk Vinius and the stolnik Fyodor Protasiev.
The presence at the hetman of Great Russian officials - one, then two, aroused concern for the existing order. Among the Little Russian troops rumors that
|Ministers assigned to the hetman do not allow him to take a free step, every letter of the hetman is examined that the hetman will no longer tolerate such custody of himself and in the spring, in alliance with the Cossacks and Tatars, he will go to Moscow.|
These rumors became known to the Kiev governor Golitsyn , who wrote to Chancellor Golovkin about them in February 1710 : "When the people find out that the hetman will not have such power as Mazepa, I hope that he will come with denunciations." Golitsyn wrote that he “in every possible way inspires anger at those who are not very inclined towards us,” and especially does not advise him in facilitating the fulfillment of the hetman’s request that Uman be given to him: “You should not give him Uman, let him live with all his with our affairs in the middle, and not in foreign places. ” Thus, an obstacle was placed on the fulfillment of the hetman’s personal request, despite the fact that the “tsarist advisers” themselves managed to beg for abundance from Skoropadsky (Menshikov, Golovkin, Shafirov). After the Battle of Poltava, Skoropadsky provided A.D. Menshikov with huge estates in the Starodub regiment ( Pochep , Yampol ) and allowed him to make a wrong demarcation, wrote in his citizenship the Pochepsky hundred Cossacks, but then he was forced to complain to him that he had arbitrarily appropriated himself extra plots of land and people.
The Chancellor tried to calm the hetman at the expense of the Kiev governor’s non-disposition and wrote:
|I wrote to Prince G., so that he wouldn’t order anyone from your city regiment to take anyone without writing to you and without the consent of your grandeur, and if what state business happens, he would do according to you; by decree he was not ordered to write to your grandeur. As we see, your greatness does not agree with the governor of Kiev; However, the royal majesty on your fidelity is blogged and unreasonable no denunciations will be believed, as you please, your grandeur, to be reliable.|
The government, indeed, avoided cases of insulting the hetman, even sent a noble Cossack Zabela to Arkhangelsk, who tried to expose Skoropadsky’s behavior in a suspicious light, but denunciations continued. In May 1713, the hetman wrote to Golovkin that he was embraced by reflection: from the beginning of his hetmanism he has unbearable sorrows from evil and godless slanderers. The Chancellor still assured him that Tsarist Majesty was quite famous about his loyalty.
As a result of Protasyev’s report at the beginning of 1715, the hetman received a royal letter in which, in order to suppress the arbitrariness and abuse of the power of the colonels, they were ordered to reduce their rights, among other things, in their choice of elders and centurions. This royal order had the effect of a spark thrown into combustible material; The colonels' discontent with their hetman intensified and the colonels among themselves appointed a new hetman.
|the current hetman is a humble man; he does not know how to stand for Ukraine; whoever attacks, everyone tears ... Not Mazepa is the damned Judas, but the current hetman is damned, does not stand for Ukraine, and Muscovites ruin it.|
They complained to the colonels that they were ruining the common people, and they complained that the Muscovites were ruining the people with their military requisitions, and the hetman was to blame for everything, which, because of its weakness, allows everything. Colonels refuse to obey the hetman: "they pay little attention to him ..." Protasiev wrote to the chancellor in 1716 .
In 1717, Skoropadsky married his daughter to Peter Tolstoy , the son of a royal dignitary . The matchmaking with a noble face inspired Skoropadsky to raise his prestige, to resort to the help of his new relative. The hetman first of all complained to the matchmaker about Protasiev: that he allegedly tried to give others the land that the hetman wanted to take for himself. Protasiev in humiliated letters justified himself before a strong man and asked that he be recalled from Little Russia.
In 1722, the hetman, together with the hetmans, surrounded by his retinue, went to Moscow to congratulate the king on the Nishtad peace . Getman was well received in Moscow; he stayed there for about six months. The last time he reminds the tsar of “articles”, but in response receives on April 29 a decree on the establishment of a Little Russian Collegium , chaired by Brigadier Velyaminov of six headquarters officers of Ukrainian garrisons. Thus, instead of one official, an entire board appeared under the hetman. In response to Skoropadsky’s complaint that Khmelnytsky’s points were destroyed, Peter wrote in his own hand:
|Instead of being decided by Khmelnitsky, in order for the governor of Great Russia to have the upper appeal, the collegium was established, and there was nothing to violate the paragraphs ... not to think.|
With the establishment of the Little Russian Collegium, he was almost completely deprived of power. With this gift Skoropadsky went home at the end of June and only managed to get to Glukhov. July 3 he was gone. He was buried in Glukhov.
- Correspondence of Skoropadsky with royal persons and other government officials is stored in the military training archive of the General Staff. Part of it is published in the Readings of the Moscow Society of Russian History and Antiquities. Skoropadsky’s contemporary, general coronet Nikolai Khanenko , described his life in 1722-1723 with all the “occasions and ceremonies” in a special “Everyday Note” printed in the “Readings of the Moscow Society of Russian History and Antiquities.”, 1857, Prince. I. Some universals of Skoropadsky and his other correspondence are published in “Kiev Starin” in 1883 and 86, in the “Collected Works of Maksimovich”, I vol., In the “Collection of South Russian Word Monuments” by Kulzhinsky and in the editions of the interim commission for the analysis of ancient acts under Kiev Governor General.
- In 2003, a postage stamp of Ukraine dedicated to Skoropadsky was issued.
- ↑ Skoropadsky Ivan Ilyich // Great Soviet Encyclopedia : [in 30 vol.] / Ed. A. M. Prokhorov - 3rd ed. - M .: Soviet Encyclopedia , 1969.
- Soloviev, "History of Russia."
- Lazarevsky, “The Skoropadsky Family”, “Historical Bulletin”, 1880, VIII.
- Tarasenko-Atreshkov, "Essays of Ukraine."
- N. Khanenko, “Diariush or Everyday Note”, “Readings Mosk. Total History and Antiquities of Russia ”, 1858, Prince. I.
- “Mater. military academy arch. Main Headquarters ”, vol. I.
- Sudienko, “Materials for Russian History,” 2 vols. Kiev, 1853-54.
- Ikonnikov, “The Experience of Russian Historiography”, vol. I, pr. I, Art. 493—497
- Letters to the Little Russian Hetman, Ivan Ilyich Skoropadsky, from Tsarina Ekaterina and Elizaveta Petroven, and Tsarina Ekaterina Alekseevna // Readings in the Imperial Society of Russian History and Antiquities, 1848. - Prince. 1. - Sep. 5. - S. 105-108.
- The heroic defense of Poltava and the Battle of Poltava .
- Ivan Frantsevich Pavlovsky. Battle of Poltava on June 27, 1709 .
- Rudakov V.E. Skoropadsky, Ivan Ilyich // Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary : in 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb. , 1890-1907.
- Skoropadsky Ivan Ilyich - article from the Great Soviet Encyclopedia .
- Khranevich K.I. Skoropadsky, Ivan Ilyich // Russian Biographical Dictionary : in 25 volumes. - SPb. - M. , 1896-1918.