John Stewart Bell ( Eng. John Stewart Bell ; June 28, 1928 , Belfast , Northern Ireland - October 1, 1990 , Geneva , Switzerland ) is a theoretical physicist. He formulated and proved Bell inequalities ( Bell 's theorem), which laid the theoretical basis for experimental EPR paradox research. Together with Roman Yatskiv described and analyzed the chiral anomaly baryons  .
|John stewart bell|
|English John stewart bell|
|Date of Birth||June 28, 1928|
|Place of Birth||Belfast , Northern Ireland|
|Date of death||October 1, 1990 (62 years)|
|Place of death||Geneva , Switzerland|
|Scientific field||theoretical physics|
|Place of work||British Department of Atomic Energy Research |
|Alma mater||University of Queens (Belfast)|
|Academic degree||( 1956 ), ( 1988 ) and ( 1988 )|
|Known as||Bell inequalities|
|Awards and prizes||Member of the Royal Society of London (1972) |
Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1987) 
Dirac Medal from the Institute of Physics (1988)
Hughes Medal (1989)
Heinemann Prize (1989)
Professor Whitaker ['' i '' 1] from the University of Queens for several years studied the biography and scientific activities of a distinguished graduate of this university. The further presentation is based on a biographical article written by him in 2002 and available on the Internet  . This article lists the sources (over 20) used by Whitaker himself. These data are complemented by a memorable essay written by Yakiv and Shimoni in 2001  .
John Stuart Bell was born on June 28, 1928 in Belfast , Northern Ireland , to a poor Irish family. Since his father’s name was also John, his relatives always called him by the second name Stewart. In addition to John Stewart, John's father and mother Annie [2) had three children: the eldest daughter Ruby and the younger sons David and Robert.
Mother dreamed of giving children a good education, because, in her opinion, only a learned man could get to a better life and, as she said, “wear a Sunday suit all week long”  . John Stuart was among the top students in elementary school. “Maybe I was not the best, but out of three or four above in the classroom”  . He began studying at Ulsterville Avenue School at Ulsterville Avenue School , then went to school at Fane Street School . At 11, instead of 14, he passed all exams for continuing secondary education.
|Belfast bombing in 1941|
|(Belfast Telegraph Archive)|
|A selection of photos|
However, 1920–1930 was the time of the greatest unemployment in Belfast, its shipbuilding and repair shipyards were practically empty, which led to a general decline in the economy in the city  . Due to lack of funds, it was decided that only John Stewart, as the most talented of the children, will continue his education after primary school. At that time, full school education was not compulsory, and only elementary school was free.
The cost of education in the prestigious high schools of Belfast, even for one child, turned out to be too expensive for the family, so John Stewart enrolled at Belfast Technical High School ( Belfast Technical High School , while the approximate equivalent of the technical school ). This school, however, had academic accreditation, that is, with its diploma it was possible to take exams at the university.
When John Stewart started high school, the UK had already entered World War II . The war revived the economy of Belfast, which became a major construction and repair shipyard of the Navy . However, this made the city the goal of regular German bombing. The Easter night raid on April 15, 1941 became especially destructive . Then about 200 Luftwaffe bombers dropped tons of conventional and incendiary bombs on the city and shipyards. 955 people were killed, 1,500 injured, half of the city, including most industrial facilities, was destroyed. Fortunately, the trouble has bypassed the Bell family. No one was injured; their home and school survived, where classes soon continued.
After successfully completing a technical school in 1944, 16-year-old Bell worked as a laboratory assistant at the physics department of the University of Queens for a year. The faculty professors Karl Emeleus ['' i '' 3] and Dr. Robert Sloan ['' i '' 4] sympathized with the gifted youth. They not only allowed him to use the faculty library, but also allowed to listen to general first-year lectures.
Finally, in 1945, funds for training were collected, and John Stuart Bell became a student of the Physics Department of the University of Queens. He brilliantly studied and in 1948 graduated with honors from the faculty with a specialization in experimental physics . At the same time, his interest in quantum mechanics was born - not to its practical application, but to the deep meaning of its provisions. In an interview with Jeremy Bernstein , shortly before his sudden death, Bell recalls being “stunned” by Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle :
It looked as if you could take such and such a measurement - and then the position is determined, or such and such measurement - and then the impulse is defined. It sounded like you can do it the way you want it. Only some time later, I realized that it was a question not of desire, but of equipment. I had to wade to this. In the available books and lectures this was not explained clearly enough. I remember arguing about it with one of my teachers, Dr. Sloan. I was excited and practically accused him of dishonesty. He, too, became very hot and said: “You are going too far.”
The funds allowed Bell to study for another year, and he, again with honors, received a diploma in mathematical physics . On this course, the German scientist Paul Ewald , who fled from the Nazi regime, was his leader , founder of X-ray analysis .
Bell would prefer to immediately begin work on his doctoral thesis and come to grips with the theory of quantum mechanics. Financial considerations, however, forced him to practice, and he went to work for the British Department of Atomic Energy Research in Harvele from where he was soon transferred to the development group of the accelerator in Malvern . There he met his future wife, Mary Ross, a physicist and mathematician from Scotland . They became husband and wife four years later, in 1954. Their marriage was strong, but childless. As specialists in related fields, they helped each other in life and in work. In the preface to his book “Expressible and Inexpressible in Quantum Mechanics” ['' i '' 5] , published in 1987, Bell wrote:  : “Here again, I want to express my warm thanks to Mary Bell. When I look through these papers, I see it everywhere. ”
In 1951, Bell received a one-year leave to continue his education. He conducted it at the University of Birmingham under the supervision of Prof. Peierls . There he formulated his own version of the CPT invariance theorem. However, earlier theorems of this kind had already been independently proposed by Lüders and Pauli , who got the status of pioneers.
However, the leave was extended for the time needed to prepare and defend a thesis. In 1956, Bell defended his thesis on the analysis of CPT-invariance and received the title of PhD . The support of Peierls, acquired over the years, which helped Bell on his return to Harvel to become a new elementary particle research group, turned out to be valuable.
Bell and his wife worked in Harvel until 1960, but they less and less liked the steady transition of all project activities from basic research to applied questions of nuclear physics. Therefore, both did not hesitate to accept the offer from CERN and moved to Switzerland .
At CERN, Bell's official specialization was particle physics and quantum field theory , but his theory of quantum mechanics remained his real passion, and it was precisely his achievements in this field that brought him main fame. Inspired by Bohm ’s ideas  (see Bohm’s Interpretation ), Bell continued his analysis of the EPR paradox and in 1964 formulated his inequalities  . Bell's original formulation was an idealized concept, on the basis of which variants of inequalities for physical experiments were constructed. These are, first of all, the Bell – Clauser – Horn and Clauser – Horne – Shimoni – Holt inequalities  .
Describing the situation that had developed around the mid-1960s around the EPR paradox in particular and the theory of quantum physics in general, Bell ironically calls it the “Why worry?” Approach (11 Why worry? )  :
It may be said that by trying to look beyond the formal predictions of quantum theory, we only create trouble for ourselves. It is useless to look at the observed phenomena: wasn’t this a lesson to be learned before it became possible to create quantum mechanics? More than this, this particular example of ['' i '' 6] once again teaches us that the whole experiment device should be considered as a whole. We should not try to analyze it in separate parts, with separately spaced portions of uncertainty. By resisting the impulse to analyze and localize, we avoid mental discomfort.
This, as I understand it, is the orthodox view formulated by Bohr in his answer  to Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. Many are very satisfied with him.
Bell was not alone in his doubts about the Copenhagen interpretation , but he was the first to dare to break the taboo on analyzing the physical picture of the world offered by this interpretation and on further analyzing the EPR paradox. John Clauser , the first to experiment with Bell’s inequality, later recalled that by asking questions about the EPR paradox in the 1950s, he would most likely have made himself unemployed. Questions about the fundamentals of quantum mechanics at the time, he said, were a sign of bad taste  .
In 1982, Bell expressed his position even more clearly  :
Why then did Born not tell me about this “ wave-pilot ”? If only to indicate its inaccuracy. Why didn't von Neumann consider it? Even more extraordinary, why after 1952 ['' i '' 8] and, more recently, even in 1978 ['' i '' 9], people are engaged in proving “impossibility”? ... Why is the pilot wave ignored in the textbooks? Shouldn't it be taught - not as the only way out, but as an antidote against the reigning complacency? To show us that nebula, subjectivity and indeterminism are not imposed by experimental facts, but by conscious theoretical choice.
Recognition and sudden death
Bell was admitted to the Royal Society of London back in 1972, but true recognition and awards came to him only in the late 80s. In 1987 he was elected an honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences . This is followed by the Medal and the Dirac Award from the Institute of Physics (1988), the Hughes Medal (1989), the Heinemann Award (1989). Finally, Bell was nominated for a Nobel Prize in Physics. [ when? ] , but the application was withdrawn due to the death of the nominee. According to the rules of the Nobel Committee, the prize is awarded only alive.
John Stuart Bell died suddenly from a stroke at the hospital in Geneva on October 1, 1990, at the age of 62. He was buried at home in Belfast ['' i '' 11] .
In 2009, the Center for Quantum Information and Quantum Control ( Eng. Center for Quantum Information & Quantum Control ) of the University of Toronto established .
|External media files|
|John Stuart Bell (1928–1990)|
|John Bell in his youth © CERN|
|John Bell (second row from the lecturer) - student at a seminar at CERN, 1977 © CERN|
|John Bell commented on his disparities, 1982 © CERN|
|Jon Stewart Bell: Photograph © CERN|
|John Stuart Bell at CERN, in the hall of the Large Electron-Positron Collider, 1989 © Corbin O'Grady Studio & Science Photo Library Ltd.|
|Bell's speech at the conference “Indeterminism and nonlocality”, CERN, 1990 © CERN|
- Quantum intricacy
- Socks burtleman
- The paradox of Einstein - Podolsky - Rosen
- Bell's theorem
- Prof. Andrew Whitaker (eng.) . The appeal date is October 28, 2011. Archived on February 18, 2012.
- Elizabeth Mary Ann Bell , maiden name Brownlee . The second name of John Stewart was given to him in memory of the Scottish roots on the mother’s side.
- Karl George Emeleus , taught physics at the university in 1933-1966. In 1984, the friends and former students of the professor established the annual university medal and the prize named after him. Archived on March 1, 2013.
- Robert Sloane
- English "Speakable and unspeakable in quantum mechanics" In the Russian translation, the game on the polysemy of a word is lost, since an alternative translation could be "What can and cannot be said in quantum physics"
- This refers to the EPR paradox
- Bohr N. Can Quantum Mechanical Description Of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete? // Physical Review: journal. - 1935. - T. 48 .
- This refers to the publication by Bohm of his alternative interpretation of quantum mechanics:
• Bohm D. A Quantum Theory in Terms of "Hidden" Variables. I // Physical Review Letters: Journal. - 1952. - V. 85 , no. 2 - DOI : 10.1103 / PhysRev.85.166 .
• Bohm D. A Quantum Theory in Terms of "Hidden" Variables. II // Physical Review Letters: Journal. - 1952. - V. 85 , no. 2 - DOI : 10.1103 / PhysRev.85.180 .
- Probably referring to the book by Abraham R., Marsden J. Foundations of mechanics. - 2nd ed. - 1978. - ISBN 9780821844380 .
- Fellow of the Royal Society - member of the Royal Society of London
- This may explain a common mistake with the place of death, which indicates Belfast.
References to sources
- Members of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences: 1780–2011 (English) . The appeal date is October 28, 2011. Archived on February 18, 2012.
- Bell 2002 - p. 377
- Whitaker A. John Stewart Bell (Eng.) (August 2002). The appeal date is October 28, 2011. Archived on February 18, 2012.
- Schulman, M. H. John Bell and his theorem . - translation of the article by Jackiw R., Shimony A. (2001), "The Depth and Breadth of John Bell's Physics", arΧiv : physics / 0105046v2 . The appeal date is October 28, 2011. Archived on February 18, 2012.
- Rosenblum B., Kutter F. Spooky Actions: Bell's Theorem // Quantum Enigma: Physics Encounters Consciousness. - Oxford University Press, 2011. - p. 173-175. - ISBN 9780199753819 .
- Lambert T. A History of Belfast . The appeal date is October 28, 2011. Archived on February 18, 2012.
- Bell 2004 - C. xiii
- Sheldon G. Bohmian Mechanics . The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy . Stanford University . The appeal date is September 13, 2011. Archived on February 5, 2012.
- Bell J.S. On the Einstein Podolsky Rosen Paradox // Physics
Putenikhin Russian translation: Einstein Rosen’s Paradox Paradox . Quantum Magic. The appeal date is September 13, 2011. Archived September 17, 2011.
- Bell 2002 - p. 104
- Bell 2004 - pp. 82–83
- Bell 2002 - p. 17
- Bell 2001 - c. 148
- Bell JS Speakable and unspeakable in quantum mechanics. - 2004. - ISBN 9780521523387 .
- Bell JS, Bell M., Gottfried K., Veltman M. John S. Bell on the foundations of quantum mechanics. - 2001. - ISBN 9789810246884 .
- Bell JS, Bertlmann RA, Zeilinger A. Quantum [un] speakables: from Bell to quantum information. - 2002. - ISBN 9783540427568 .