Vincent d'Indy ( Fr. Vincent d'Indy , full name Fr. Paul-Marie-Théodore-Vincent d'Indy ; March 27, 1851 , Paris - December 2, 1931 , ibid.) - French composer , organist , conductor , teacher , music critic and publicist , public figure. The largest representative of the school is Cesar Franca . Vincent d'Andy lived a great and active life, including at least three eras of life in France . He was born in Paris during the Second Republic , lived and fought during the Second Empire ( Napoleon III ) and died there at the age of 80, already at sunset of the Third Republic .
Vincent d'Andy, 1893 (from 1911 postcard )
|Date of Birth||March 27, 1851|
|Place of Birth||Paris , France|
|Date of death||December 2, 1931 (aged 80)|
|Place of death||Paris , France|
composer , conductor , music teacher
Count Vincent d'Andy was born in Paris , but spent most of his childhood in the mountainous region of southern France, Savannah, adjacent to Savoy . There, at d'Indy's family estate, he was fully granted the care of his grandmother, his mother's father. A woman with a strong and domineering character (typical "landowner"), she was an ardent lover of music and at the same time the first teacher of her grandson. As a teenager, Vincent d'Andy returns to Paris. Having a spectacular appearance and a strong physique, during the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-1871, d'Andy served in the National Guard. After the war, returning to the capital, he received a musical education at the Paris Conservatory (1873-1875) in the piano class of Marmontel and Lavignac harmony (a famous author of the textbook of traditionalist harmony ). In 1872, d'Andy began composing classes under the direction of Caesar Frank . This meeting determined his creative and personal fate for the rest of his life. But not only him. In the person of Vincent d'Andy, the aging master himself found not only a faithful student and follower of his ideas, but also a personal friend, as well as a propagandist of aesthetic views. Vincent d'Andy became the most active member and head of the group of musicians that surrounded Frank in the last years of his life. In addition to him, this group included Ernest Chausson , Henri Dupark , Guy Ropartz , Gabriel Pierne and many others who are not so easy to remember. This circle, which opposed the Academy and the Conservatory, at first brought a fresh stream to the music of Paris, by the beginning of the 1900s it itself had become “musical power”, and after another ten years it took the place of honor of conservatives and retrogrades, which young musicians of France called for brevity "Franco" . [one]
From the age of 23, Vincent d'Andy is an active concert musician and performer, he readily occupies various positions and masters many specialties. Having not yet completed the course of the conservatory, since 1874 he replaced the position of choirmaster , plays the timpani in the orchestra and serves as a church organist . The first official success overtook d'Andy in the mid-1880s. For his "Song of the Bell" to the words of Friedrich Schiller (for the choir and large symphony orchestra) in 1886 he received the Grand Prize of the city of Paris. His teacher and the whole circle took this award with enthusiasm as the first evidence of the victory of Caesar Frank's school. Since 1887, Vincent d'Andy became the main choirmaster of the Society for New Concertos (since 1897, called the “Lamoureux Concerts”). After 1890, Vincent d'Andy also begins to concert as a symphony conductor ,  performing mainly his own works, he toured France and many European countries, including Russia ( Petersburg - 1903 and 1907).
Of course, all this abundance of musical performance had its own firm organizational basis. From the youngest years, Vincent d'Andy has been actively involved in many collective projects as the main engine, and subsequently leads many of them. Back in 1871 (at the age of 20), Vincent d'Andy became one of the current organizers of the National Music Society and its long-standing secretary. The initiators of the establishment of this society for the promotion of new music were Saint-Saens , Chausson , Foret and Frank (it is strange to say, but these names in those days represented “new music”). But it was d'Andy who took the lion's share of the daily painstaking organizational work. And twenty years later, in 1890 - he headed this organization and became its president .
However, the landmark and, perhaps, the main event in the life of Vincent d'Andy as a public figure, can certainly be considered 1894 , when d'Andy, Charles Bord and Alexander Gilman founded a new conservatory in Paris called Schola cantorum (literally - "Singers' School" , or “Singing School”, translated by J. Hanon - “School of Cantors, ”  ). Despite its name, Schola cantorum was not a church singing school, despite the fact that the training courses were devoted to the ancient church music of Catholics (including the traditional Gregorian monody). For many years, the Parisian Schola cantorum has become a stronghold (polyphony) of strict style in the narrow sense of the word and musical conservatism in general.
The Latin historical name " Schola cantorum " was given to the school in honor of the eponymous singing school , founded in Rome , the earliest in the 7th century; the first documentary evidence of this term is recorded in church documents of the VIII century  . The Roman school of singers was closed in 1370 and for a long time became a kind of musical and musical legend. As a sign of particular continuity, the Paris Schola Cantorum has for many years been in close cooperation and under the patronage of the Catholic Institute . The main content of the school’s course was the study of ancient church music, Gregorian singing , the technique of old polyphony (on the example of the work of Palestrina , Schutz , Bach , Handel , some “specially admitted” French masters, for example, Lully , Rameau and Couperin , as well as, of course, Caesar Frank). It took about two years to prepare, repair the building, settle numerous formalities and neutralize some of the emerging opposition of the “musical authorities”. Active teaching work “ Schola Kantorum ” began in 1896 . 
Even during the life of Cesar, Frank d'Andy gradually became familiar with the taste of musical pedagogy - a striking example of his teacher. But the nature of his teaching was not entirely educational. First of all, he saw in this activity one of the ways of spreading religious and aesthetic ideas: his and his teacher. In his famous book “Musicians of the Past, Musicians of Our Day,” Romain Rolland with sincere admiration speaks of the indefatigable enlightenment of d'Andy, who gives lessons only “for the pleasure of teaching, serving his art and helping artists. He runs schools, takes on the most ungrateful, but especially necessary, teaching job, almost looking for it. Or he reverently indulges in the study of the past, the revival of some old master . "
It was in the organization of a new school, subject to a certain idea, that Vincent d'Andy found the ideal systemic solution for his preaching inclinations. Especially for the new course of study, he created and read a special “strict” course of orchestral conducting, and also led a composition class. Since 1900, for many years, he also became director of the Schola Kantorum.  Having done a lot to promote musical education and spread the national French culture, d'Andy, however, throughout his life remained a bright Wagnerian , who often made statements about the complete dependence of contemporary French music on Wagnerian heritage.
And the “Prince of Impressionists" Claude Debussy ,  and other orthodox Impressionists , and Ravel , and the so-called "young" Ravelites together disliked Vincent d'Andy for his Wagnerianism, retrograde and constant unwillingness to participate in the struggle of groups. Debussy (Mr. Crochet) even devoted a separate critical article to the analysis of the activities of Schola cantorum.  But from year to year the director of the “school of cantors”  invariably continued to bend his hard line and stood apart, not joining anyone, for which he earned the solemn nickname of the “Paris Mandarin ”.
However, despite its undisguised extreme conservatism and ecclesiastical retrograde training course, “Schant cantorum”,  oddly enough, rendered good service primarily for the vanguard of French music of the early XX century . And the decisive factor here turned out to be, first of all, that the new school, located in the “gloomy building” on the street of Saint-Jacques,  put an end to the deadly state monopoly on music education in France.  Until that moment, only the Paris Conservatory , which was under the “brilliant patronage” of the Academy of Fine Arts, had the “legal right” to issue licensed music professionals .  But now anyone dissatisfied with the state’s monopoly on everything beautiful has the opportunity to earn a full diploma of “music writer” in a private institution, even if it ’s completely “scholastic . ” that is needed is a cursory glance at the Schola Kantorum alumni list,  to understand what an unexpected and even amazing role the Gregorian Church School took on.  Among the students of d'Andy, attention is drawn first of all to such names as Albert Roussel (a composer completely alien to any scholasticism),  Alberic Manyar (a bright wagnerist who died in 1914 , in early days of the war ), Georges Orik (fourth of The Six ), Roland-Manuel , Edgar Varez ( avant-garde even among avant-garde artists) and Boguslav Martina ,  as well as Gustave Samazey and Deoda Severac , composers , by no means alien to experiments .
... But, of course, Eric Sati , an impudent experimenter , the eternal “Protestant” and the founder of not only one, but several of the latest trends in 20th century music, should be put on the “first and main” name in this list of original “scholastics”.  Having received the diploma of “ counterpoint punishment” in 1908 (at the age of “over forty”) , he took an orchestration course personally with Vincent d'Andy for two more years and kept the kindest memories of him. In one of his articles on new French music, Satie wrote: “I have always been a bad student - in other words, a loafer. But I have to say that I worked a lot with D'Andy, and still keep the best memories of those seven years that I spent with this man, very kind and simple ..., a simple dandy , I wanted to say. "  (It should be noted especially that such positive memories of people are rare for Sati!) But the entire church and old-school education of the “scholastic school” did not in the least prevent Eric Sati, immediately after receiving the diploma, to continue his scandalous and eccentric experiments . And the diploma of the counterpoint of strict writing did not serve as the slightest obstacle. Having received a strong professional baggage, every graduate of a private musical institution could freely continue in his own spirit , especially if he had this spirit. Apparently, it was precisely the personal qualities of Vincent d'Andy's character that enabled his very strict brainchild, the Cantor's School  to acquire such a non-strict (and even distinctly liberal- avant-garde) face.  Almost ten years later, in one of his articles, Eric Satie wrote about his former director as follows: 
“... among the followers of Debussy there are numerous musicians-mentors and overseers <...> (D'Andy, however, is not one of them, he is a poet by nature, although he teaches ... as a typical overseer)" ... [ 3]- (Eric Satie. “The Big Difference”, “Le Coq”, Paris, septembre 1920)
A fairly accurate remark about your own teacher . And in fact, who, if not a real poet, could unite (and so bizarrely rhyme ) throughout his life a commitment to the oldest church polyphony and Orthodox love for Wagner?
And the same two great ones: Richard Wagner and Caesar Frank defined the composer's style and lifelong aesthetic affection of Vincent d'Andy  . He knew Wagner's work almost from childhood, but he met closely and in detail with musical dramas and theoretical works of Wagner in 1876 , during his first visit to Bayreuth . From that moment, Vincent d'Andy became a regular “ pilgrim ” to Bayreuth and a faithful adherent of the teachings of the “ Saxon dwarf”. It is strange to say, but he, a Frenchman to the marrow of bones, carried this truly German fidelity to his very death (without even shaking two great wars with Germany!) , And even in his program book (Richard Wagner and his influence on the musical art of France ), written in 1929 , almost in the middle of the 20th century, he continued to seriously argue that almost everything in the world came from Wagner . He calls him “the savior and leader” of French music , in those days when “our national opera fell so low!” Vincent d'Andy proudly says that he was “one of the first to use Leitmotifs and other principles of Wagnerian musical construction. ”  And he derives even impressionism (like a true poet !) Directly from the works of Richard Wagner.
"The art of Debussy is indisputable from the art of the author of Tristan ... The only difference is that Debussy's Wagner's dramatic principles are interpreted ... so to speak, a la franzese ."- (Vincent d'Indy. Richard Wagner et son influence sur l'art musical francais. Paris, 1930)
Not surprisingly, roughly the same influences are found in the music of Vincent d'Andy himself, starting with his early works. Even a simple listing of the names leaves no doubt in the sources and guidelines of his inspiration. The Wallenstein symphonic trilogy (1873–79) based on Schiller’s poem, the Enchanted Forest symphonic ballad (1878) and especially his opera Fervaal (1881–95), staged in Brussels (halfway to Germany!) (1897 ), which both listeners and critics immediately identified as an internal French version of Parsifal . The plot of the opera is also based on the Scandinavian epic (" Edda "). The music, however, has quite serious stylistic differences, combining Wagnerian harmony and the leitmotif system with the intonations of the song folklore of southern France, where (in the Cévennes ) several years of Vincent d'Andy's childhood passed. However, these differences are not so radical that an outsider and not sympathetic observer, which, of course, was Maurice Ravel, could attribute the opera Fervaal to some other stylistic direction: 
“It must be admitted that at all times even very gifted composers fell so much influenced by some brightly individual masters that they unwittingly abandoned their own face. We have and will have the works of “ debussy ”. And the more time passes, the more we are convinced of the existence of works entirely of Wagnerist . The most significant among them is Fervaal. ”- (Maurice Ravel. Fervaal, Comoedia, January 20, 1913.)
Gradually, French folklore themes and melodies become more apparent and even begin to prevail in the work of Vincent d'Andy. And again this can be seen even in the names: “ Symphony on the theme of the French Highlander's song ” (1886), “Fantasies on the theme of French folk songs” for oboe and orchestra (1888). A year before his death, d'Andy composed the piano Fantasy on the Theme of Old French Rondo (1930). It is clear that all these works (already from the point of view of Wagnerian aesthetics) would be recognized as apostate, and Vincent d'Andy himself would have to be ranked among typical professional academic composers .
At the same time, at the beginning of the 20th century, he wrote a completely traditional romantic symphony in three parts, “Summer Day in the Mountains” (1905), and shortly before his death (1926, under the emotional impression of his second marriage), “Mediterranean Diptych” is completely in tradition “ symphonic picture "romantics.
A rather clear and figurative description of Vincent d'Andy’s creative face was given by Romain Rolland in his famous essay “Musicians of Our Day”:
"Clarity! This is the hallmark of d'Andy's mind. There are no shadows in it ... There is no mindset more French. He was often called the Wagnerian; indeed, Wagner’s influence on him was very obvious. But even when this effect was most pronounced, it remained superficial! His spirit is completely different. You may find in Fervaal several trees from the Siegfried Forest, but the forest itself is not the same: alleys are cut in it, and light penetrates the caves of Nibelunga ... ”- Romain Rolland. “Musicians of the past, musicians of our day . ”
The second opera by Vincent d'Andy's “Alien” was also staged in Brussels in 1903 . The wide Parisian public knew about the major theatrical works of d'Andy only by hearsay. And here, of course, the clan nature of the musical life of France affected. Having organized his compact and unshakably stable “Cantorum Chip” as opposed to the conservatory , Vincent d'Andy unwittingly put himself in opposition to the Academy and, as a result, to the state opera houses. And although throughout his life he enjoyed the "universal respect" of the ruling musical elders and there were no direct conflicts, in general, the attitude towards the d'Andy from the musical establishment remained cool throughout his life. And even more coolness was added during the war with Germany , when anti-German and nationalist hysteria literally swept French society and inevitably affected Wagner himself and “everyone who is for him”.
In addition to the already mentioned book about Wagner, Vincent d'Andy’s hand contains great works about his beloved teacher Caesar Franck (1906) and Beethoven (1911), as well as the monumental four-volume “The Course of Musical Composition”, in which he sets out in detail his creative method and basics pedagogical views. However, listing all the musical, literary and other works of Vincent d'Andy, we have to admit that of all of them, the “Schantum cantorum” was the most significant and important from the point of view of the history of French music of the XX century.
List of works
Literary works (selection)
- Cours de composition musicale. Paris, 1909 (vol.I, ed. A.Sérieyx), 1909 (vol.II, part 1, ed. A.Sérieyx), 1933 (vol.II, part 2; ed. A.Sérieyx), 1950 (vol .III, ed. G. de Lioncourt)
- César Franck. Paris, 1906.
- Richard Wagner et son influence sur l'art musical français. Paris, 1930.
- Compiled by M. Gerard and R. Challe. Ravel in the mirror of his letters. - L .: Music, 1988 .-- S. 45.
- Claude Debussy . Selected letters (compiled by A. Rozanov). - L .: Music, 1986. - S. 35-36.
- Eric Sati , Yuri Hanon . “Backdating memories.” - SPb. : Center for Middle Music & Faces of Russia , 2010. - 682 p. - ISBN 978-5-87417-338-8 .
- Dahlhaus C. , Eggebrecht HH (Hrsg.) Brockhaus Riemann Musiklexikon, Schott, Mainz 1979; Dyer J. The Schola cantorum and its Roman milieu in the early Middle Ages // De musica et cantu. Helmut Hucke zum 60. Geburtstag, hrsg.v. P. Cahn u. A.-K. Heimer. Hildesheim, 1993, SS.19-40; Dyer J. Schola cantorum // The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. NY, L., 2001
- Compiled by M. Gerard and R. Challe. [(translation by V. Michelis and N. Polyak) “Ravel in the mirror of his letters”]. - L .: Music, 1988.
- Claude Debussy. Selected letters (compiled by A. Rozanov). - L .: Music, 1986.
-  // Classical music: a biography of Vincent d'Andy
- Filenko G. French music of the first half of the 20th century. - L .: Music, 1983 .-- 232 p.
- Erik Satie . Ecrits - Paris: Editions Gerard Lebovici, 1990 .-- S. 45.
- Andy, Vincent // Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary : in 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb. , 1890-1907.
- Vincent d'Indy. Richard Wagner et son influence sur l'art musical francais. - Paris, 1930 .-- S. 57.
- Compiled by M. Gerard and R. Challe. Ravel in the mirror of his letters. - L .: Music, 1988 .-- S. 227.
- Romain Rolland . “Musicians of the past days, musicians of our days” L., 1935;
- Solovyov N.F. ,. Andy, Vincent // Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary : in 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb. , 1890-1907.
- Tierzo J., “Vincent d'Andy and Caesar Franck's School” (in the collection “French Music of the Second Half of the 19th Century”, M., 1938;
- Andy, Vincent d ' // Musical Encyclopedic Dictionary . - M .: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1990 .-- S. 654 . - ISBN 5-85270-033-9 .
- Schneerson G. French Music of the 20th Century, 2nd ed. - M., 1970;
- Ravel in the mirror of his letters. Compiled by M. Gerard and R. Chaliou ., L., Music, 1988.
- Claude Debussy . Selected Letters (compiled by A. Rozanov) L., “Music”, 1986;
- Vincent d'Indy . Richard Wagner et son influence sur l'art musical francais. Paris, 1930;
- Erik Satie Ecrits, - Editions champ Libre, 1977 (1990);