The Orenburg Expedition (from 1737 the Orenburg Commission , 1734–1744 ) was a state institution in Russia that was in charge of organizing trade with the peoples of Central and Central Asia and their further accession to Russia. But because of the beginning of the uprisings , together with the Bashkir commission, it was engaged in its suppression and the construction of a system of fortifications on the southeastern border of Bashkiria .
It was created according to the project of Senate Chief Secretary IK Kirilov . Kirilov and led formed in 1734 Orenburg expedition. Its first event was the foundation of the Orenburg fortress (later - Orsk ) on the border of Bashkiria and the Kazakh steppes at the confluence of the River Ori and Yaik . In general, the commission founded 53 fortresses and about 40 redoubts and outposts.
The organization of the expedition led to a change in the policy of the tsarist administration in relation to the indigenous population. After the massive seizures of the Bashkir patrimonial lands in favor of the state treasury, noblemen, officials, officers, soldiers and other immigrants, and by the middle of the XVIII century, the Bashkirs lost about half of their patrimonial estates. In addition, taxes and duties have increased. The tsarist officials established control over the activities of the Muslim clergy, imposed a ban on the construction of mosques and began a policy of violent Christianization. Local self-government was also limited: the role of yyyns decreased, and the elected elders of the volosts were replaced by elders appointed by the authorities. Bashkirs were forbidden to give the tsar to the tsar on behalf of all the people, buy and sell firearms, engage in blacksmithing and making weapons outside the city borders, freely move from one locality to another, etc.
The Orenburg expedition consisted of scientists from various fields of science, leading geographic and ethnographic descriptions, mineral exploration, mapping, and so on. However, the activity of the expedition was largely limited to questions of the internal management of Bashkortostan and the struggle against major Bashkir uprisings in the 30s of the XVIII century. After the death of Kirilov in 1737, the Orenburg Expedition was headed by V.N. Tatischev , V.A. Urusov , I.I. Neplyuev . Also in the expedition was an economist P. I. Rychkov , known for his local history and historiographical works.
The historian P. N. Stolpyansky gave the following assessment of the commission’s activities:
“But Kirilov’s plan, drawn up speculatively, on the basis of some theories, in fact proved to be not so easy to implement. I had to dream not about arranging a flotilla on the Aral Sea, thinking not about equipping trading caravans from Orenburg across the Kyrgyz steppe into rich gold, spices, precious stones and fine fabrics of fertile India - no, I had to wage a stubborn bloody struggle for every step, for every piece nominally listed for them land and fight on two fronts. With two nationalities, also nominally in our citizenship: the Bashkirs pressed from the sides, who understood that their rule had come to an end, and there were militant nomads of the Kirghiz ahead ... ”
In 1744 her office was transformed into the Orenburg provincial office.
- Kirilov Ivan Kirillovich (1734-1737)
- Vasily Nikitich Tatishchev (1737-1739)
- Urusov Vasily Alekseevich (1739-1741)
- Leonid Yakovlevich Soymonov (1741-1742)
- Neplyuev, Ivan Ivanovich (1742-1744)
- Rychkov, P. I. “The Orenburg Story”, “Works and Translations, Servants for Benefit and Amusement,” SPB 1759
- Apollova N. G. “Economic and political relations of Kazakhstan with Russia in the XVIII - early XIX century”, Moscow 1960
- Novlyanskaya M. G. “I. K. Kirilov, 18th century geographer ”, Moscow-Leningrad 1964.