Pickup (from the English. Pick-up - lift, tear off, drive) - a light truck with a closed cabin and an open cargo area with low sides and a rear door .
Originally produced as a working vehicle with a minimum of amenities, but in the 1950s, American consumers began to buy pickups not for the purpose of transporting goods, but in order to emphasize their lifestyle. And by the 1990s, only less than 15 percent of owners reported that they use it only as a freight vehicle.
Today, in North America, the pickup is mainly used as a passenger car and accounts for about 18 percent of the total number of cars sold in the United States. (Sources: “Pickup.” Merriam Webster. Retrieved 2014-08-07, Mueller, Mike. The American Pickup Truck. P. 9, Porter, Bryan (2011). Handbook of Traffic Psychology. Elsevier. P. 222, “Vehicle Registration Data ". Hedges & Company. Retrieved 2016-02-06)
The term pickup was used by Studebeyer in 1913 and by the 1930s, pickup had become the standard term.
In Australia and New Zealand, the name Ut (short for utilitarian) is used for both pickups and coupes.
A Brief History of North American Pickups
The first delivery pickups with a small platform for transporting small consignments of goods based on passenger cars with ICE appeared at the beginning of the 20th century in Europe and the USA . In the second half of the 1910s, the largest American automobile manufacturers Ford , Dodge and Chevrolet launched their massive assembly line assembly.
During the 1910-1970s, pickups were considered purely utilitarian vehicles, primarily necessary for farmers and small businesses, and as auxiliary delivery trucks to transport, service, construction and road repair companies.
In the early 1980s, the first models of recreational and sports pickups (for example, the 1983 Toyota Hilux SR5 4WD) appeared with the corresponding color and chrome exterior parts, as well as a protective tube arc of safety in the body and a "chandelier" of lighting on it. In the future, this area of "pick-up" for the transport of bulky sports equipment and tourist equipment, as well as amateur cross-country racing, has acquired a sustainable development with a focus on the youth audience. In addition, racing SUVs and buggies for rally raids and bach are often equipped with pickup bodies.
Currently, there are conventionally two main design schools of pick-up: European-Australian, which involves the creation of a pickup based on a conventional passenger car with a supporting body, and American-Asian, in which the pickup is based on a solid frame chassis, often unified with all - wheel drive SUVs (SUV ) Accordingly, in the first case, the pick-up cabin is simply the front part of the passenger compartment , and the floor base of the single-sided platform is reinforced with additional elements or mounted on a semi-frame welded to the cab spars, or in the second case, the front part of the SUV body is used.
Since the mid-1980s, pickups produced by the Big Three have gained increased popularity in the countries of North America due to the relative cheapness in comparison with passenger cars, besides lacking by this time traditional powerful and high-torque gasoline engines such as V8 due to the tightening of average consumption fuel according to CAFE standards . At the same time, pickups were practically equal to passenger cars in terms of equipment and comfort and passive safety systems, and the appearance of super-powerful V10 engines indicated their superiority even over sports cars in terms of dynamics and traction when towing fairly heavy trailers. All this combined and made pickups a fashionable type of car in the eyes of American consumers. For professional use, versions of Heavy Duty pickups are available, as a rule, of the 2nd and 3rd load classes, and models of the 4th and 5th classes are initially not offered as pickups, but as chassis with a cab and trucks with various add-ons.
In the 1990s and in the first half of the 2000s, mass demand shifted from cars to pickups, which led to the emergence of new brands in this segment, including even such prestigious ones as Cadillac and Lincoln . Marketers and transporters even got the special term “individual pickup,” that is, used not as a commercial, but as a private passenger car. Japanese giants such as Toyota Motor and Nissan Motor tried to join the traditional manufacturers of full-size pickups from the Big Three, however, only as outsiders of the market.
However, by the mid-2000s, in the North American market due to rising fuel prices, partially triggered by an excess of too gluttonous cars in the American fleet, there was a slight decline in interest in particularly powerful pickup models, which forced the Big Three and the Japanese Japanese branches companies (for example, Toyota ) to actively promote pickups with hybrid power plants ( internal combustion engine + electric motor with batteries ). The collapse of the American automobile market as a result of the financial crisis hit the pickups and SUVs the most (the fall in sales of the Trucks segment in 2009 was 22.5% versus 19.9% for passenger cars).
In 2014–2015, the North American automobile market (including the pickup market) was undergoing recovery, mainly due to falling oil prices and, accordingly, lower fuel prices. So, in 2014, the pickup market in the USA grew by 6.6% to 2.32 million against + 11.9% for SUVs (5.31 million) and +1.7% for cars (7.94 million), and in 2015 - by 9.7% to 2.55 million, versus +16% for SUVs (6.17 million) and -1.9% for cars (7.78 million). Nevertheless, federal restrictions on harmful emissions and fuel consumption continue to apply, which forced, for example, Ford Motor to master the manufacture of aluminum F-series full-size pickup platforms, and General Motor to focus on maximizing the output of the popular mid-size Chevrolet Colorado / GMC Canyon in high demand. Interest in various hybrid and electric versions of pickups decreased significantly, which, however, did not lead to the failure of leading American manufacturers to further develop this direction. So, by 2020, Ford intends to equip its entire lineup of pickups and SUVs with hybrid drive.
Pickup development in other regions of the world
In Europe, a pickup truck became relatively common before the First World War . Early pickups were often used for military purposes, as mobile radios, ambulances and staff cars were equipped on their basis.
In the interwar period of the 1920-1930s, machine guns and anti-aircraft guns , and later anti-tank guns, began to be mounted on pickups. The use of commercial pickups in Europe during this period remained relatively limited, as farmers and transport companies preferred more durable and practical light trucks. Nevertheless, a lot of car companies (especially Italian, French and Czechoslovak) offered a pickup truck as a commercial version of a car.
After World War II, pickups in Western Europe began to be made mainly on the basis of small cars, often with front-wheel drive. However, the Volkswagen Transporter pickup truck on the rear-engine platform Volkswagen Beetle in 1950 became the world's first mass LCV wagon layout. Competition with more compact LCVs with a cabin above the engine, as well as short-cab and cab-free cabs and delivery vans has limited the spread of classic pickups in the European market and now all models of this class are imported to Europe from Asia or South America.
In Asia (primarily in Japan), pickups began to be mass-produced since the late 1950s. In the 1970s, Japanese-made compact pickups began to penetrate the North American market (including under local brands such as the Isuzu Pickup - Chevrolet LUV 1970) and subsequently captured a significant share of the compact pickup segment. It was Japanese compact-class frame pickups that became the most popular all over the world, and now they are produced in a number of countries under licenses (most commonly in China and Thailand ).
Pickups in the USSR
In the USSR, the first production pickups appeared in the 1930s. These were the half-ton models GAZ-4 and GAZ-M415 , produced at the Gorky Automobile Plant under the license of the American company Ford. After World War II, the mass production of pickups in the USSR was not resumed, although the Moskvich-400 family provided for a commercial chassis, which was also suitable for installing a small cargo platform, but only a van and an aerodrome launcher were actually produced on it. Pickups were not made by the manufacturer on the basis of Pobeda and Volga middle-class cars - the existing demand for such cars from state trading organizations was satisfied due to the products of car repair plants (for example, A-948 Voronezh and CHARZ-274 Cheboksary repair plants), in addition, individual copies were created for internal needs in garage conditions at motor depots and taxi fleets from decommissioned passenger cars. On the basis of the GAZ-69 and UAZ-469 SUVs, experimental pickups were created, but were not really produced - in the series there was only an all-wheel drive truck with a cab above the engine and with the usual three-axle UAZ-450 platform, and later the rear-wheel drive (4x2) UAZ-451 and all-wheel drive UAZ-452 (after 1985 UAZ-3303 ). The only Soviet large-scale pickup was Izh-27151 , produced since 1974 on the basis of the Izh-2715 van of the 1972 model.
In the late 1980s, with the development of cooperatives , pickups were produced in small series on the basis of models such as Moskvich-2140 and Zaporozhets (ZAZ-968P), but the real recovery in the pickup segment came only in the 1990s. The most promising Soviet pickups were supposed to be Moskvich-2335 and Izh-27171 , which were being prepared for production, however, due to the crisis of the USSR's perestroika economy, they could not be mastered in the 1980s.
Pickup development in Russia and Ukraine
After the collapse of the planned economy of the USSR, the model lines of each automobile plant began to form independently. As a result, almost all domestic manufacturers rushed into the delivery pickup segment. So, in the early 1990s, pickup models were shown by IzhAvto (Izh-27171 “Oda version”), AZLK (Moskvich-2335), GAZ ( GAZ-2304 “Burlak” and GAZ-2308 “Ataman” ), UAZ (UAZ- 2315), as well as the Ukrainian ZAZ (ZAZ-11055 "Pickup"). However, difficulties with financing at IzhAvto led to a significant delay (until the end of the 1990s) in the development of the Izh-27171 mass pickup (van) based on the Izh-2126 Orbit / Oda rear-wheel drive hatchback, and Moskvich-2335 front-wheel drive pickup though and went into series in 1993, never became a popular mass model. GAZ and UAZ pickup trucks, in general, did not leave the stage of pilot designs. Some popularity in the Ukrainian and Russian markets in the 2000s was enjoyed by the small-size ZAZ-11055 Pickup. The most notable manufacturer of pickups (albeit with a three-platform platform) since the mid-1990s was VAZinterService (now VIS-Avto), whose models under the VIS brand (from 2345 to 2349), created on the basis of LADA passenger models, used a certain popularity, although inferior in number to the models of Izh. In the mid-2000s, for a short time (one to two years), small-scale Trofim pickups based on the Volga ( GAZ-31105 ), as well as the Oka Serpukhov microcar ( SeAZ-11116 ) appeared on the market. In the 2000s, problems with a rise in the cost of components and unprofitable production led to curtailing the production of a number of domestic passenger models: Moskvich-Svyatogor in 2001, Izh-Oda in 2005, ZMA Oka in 2006 , SeAZ “Oka” and GAZ “Volga” - in 2008, which also led to the suspension of production of most Russian passenger pickups. Relative to the mass model, only the Izh-27175 hybrid with the cabin from the VAZ-2104 and the cargo part from the Oda Version became the mass model, despite the suspension of production in 2009-2010. due to the bankruptcy of IzhAvto. At the same time, the Ulyanovsk Automobile Plant since 2008 began mass production of pickups of the Cargo and Pickup models based on the UAZ Patriot SUV. In 2010, the Ukrainian OJSC Bogdan presented the Bogdan-2312 pickup truck (based on the Bogdan-2310 van, created on the basis of the LADA 110 sedan), which mass production was planned from 2011, but was never deployed. In the same year, the production of a pickup truck (van) ZAZ-11055 "Tavria Pickup" was completed. By the way, the models of the Ukrainian ZAZ denoted by the word “Pickup” were not such, since they belonged to the closed type of van body. In autumn 2012, in connection with the cessation of production of the rear-wheel drive LADA Classic family, the production of the Izh-27175 pickup truck (van) was discontinued. The assembly of the Great Wall Wingle 5 (in Gzhel) and Ssangyong Actyon Sports (in Vladivostok) SKD kits of foreign cars was stopped at the end of 2014. At the moment (mid-2017), UAZ (pickup and Cargo) pickups, LADA (2329 4x4 Pickup model) and VIS (2346 and 2349 models with modifications) are in production in the CIS , the latest brand since 2014 included in the LADA line.
Pickup distribution in the modern world
As of the second decade of the 21st century, a pickup as a body type is popular in most regions of the world and only in Europe over the past 30–35 years they have been superseded by both passenger vans and airborne versions of larger LCVs . In the markets of North and Latin America, preference is given to full-sized, mid-sized and compact pickups. The world leaders in the production of pickups remain the Big Three companies. In addition, passenger pickups such as the Fiat Strada are also popular in South America .
In Asia, the most common compact pickups, including all-wheel drive, which are popular primarily in the Middle East , as well as in Southeast Asia and throughout Africa . By the way, over the past quarter century, the main Japanese manufacturers Toyota, Nissan, Mitsubishi and Isuzu for economic reasons moved the production of their compact pickups from factories in Japan to branches in Southeast Asia and at the same time launched production of full-size pickups in North America , competing with " The Big Three. ” Since the beginning of the 2010s, China has also become one of the world leaders in pickup production volumes.
In Australia, passenger pickups based on local full-size Holden and Ford passenger cars are traditionally in demand. However, due to the curtailment of production of these branches due to unprofitability, in the coming years, these original Australian pickups will completely cease to exist.
In Western and Eastern Europe, passenger pickups based on mass small cars in the 2010s completely lost popularity. At the same time, the success of the compact Volkswagen Amarok model has led to increased interest in frame pickups. So the FCA concern also begins in 2016 sales of the Fiat Fullback model based on the Mitsubishi L200 in the European market.
В России пикап как тип коммерческого кузова пользуется крайне ограниченным спросом из-за конкуренции с бортовыми LCV, например, с Газелью , но с середины 2000-х годов получил некоторое распространение как бюджетная или спортивно-рекреационная версия обычного внедорожника. В любом случае, доля пикапов всех типов на российском рынке не превышает 0,8—1 %, так в 2015 году было продано 8,17 тыс. импортных и 4,48 тыс. отечественных пикапов брендов: УАЗ, Toyota, Mitsubishi, ВИС, Volkswagen, Nissan, Great Wall, LADA, SsangYong и Ford.
В то время как в Соединенных Штатах и Канаде большинство пикапов используются в основном для пассажирских перевозок, сельского хозяйства и коммерческого использования, пикапы также используются в правоохранительных органах, военных, пожарных службах и гонках.
Монстр-трак - это автомобиль, созданный из пикапов, но с чрезвычайно большими колесами и подвеской. Они используются для соревнований и популярных спортивных развлечений.
Оснащение пикапов крышей кемпера обеспечивает небольшую жилую площадь для кемпинга. С другой стороны, надстройки-кемперы придают пикапу удобства небольшого автодома, но все же позволяют оператору иметь возможность снятия надстройки и независимого использования транспортного средства.
В Южной Африке пикапы используются в качестве патрульных транспортных средств полицейской службой Южной Африки.
Модифицированные пикапы могут использоваться как импровизированные, небронированные боевые машины, называемые Вооружённый пикап .(Источники: Abel, David (28 July 2014). "Rules have diesel enthusiasts fuming". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 11 May 2016; Dahl, Melissa (24 July 2014). "Why Pickup Truck Drivers Are Paying $5,000 to Pollute More". Science of Us. Retrieved 11 May 2016; Kulze, Elizabeth (16 June 2014). ""Rollin' Coal" Is Pollution Porn for Dudes With Pickup Trucks". Vocativ. Retrieved 11 May 2016)
Типы современных пикапов
Passenger pickups ( yuts ) - a category of pickups built on the platform of mass passenger cars with load-bearing bodies or using most of their components and assemblies and a semi-frame rear part welded to the cab obtained from the front of the car body. The first type includes specially designed on the basis of front-wheel drive subcompacts or SUV pickups, for example, Dacia Logan Pick Up, Fiat Strada, Volkswagen Saveiro and Lada 4x4 Pickup, and the second - domestic pickups of the VIS ( VAZinterService ) brand, as well as Australian pickups of brands Holden and Ford, produced by local GM and Ford Motor affiliates. For passenger pickups, the front suspension and powertrain (as well as the type of transmission - front-wheel or rear-wheel), tail and front doors exactly correspond to the base model of the car. The rear suspension is reinforced - with springs or compact springs. Cabins, as a rule, are compact 2-seater, but in recent years, elongated one and a half have gained some distribution. The most original models include the Chevrolet SSR pickup with a convertible convertible cab with a folding hard top. Four-wheel drive in passenger pickups is the exception rather than the rule, for example, the Russian VIS-2346 and VAZ-2329 pickups were originally created on the basis of the compact LADA 4x4 SUV ( VAZ-21214 Niva ).
Includes (for 2016) such modern models as:
- Fiat strada
- Fiat toro
- Holden HSV Maloo R8
- Volkswagen Saveiro
- LADA 4x4 Pickup
Compact pickups (another category designation is “monophonic pickups”, and in some European countries such pickups are called medium-sized, and cars - compact) remain the most common pick-up class in the world today. All pickups of this type are built on a frame chassis (from leading manufacturers - a safer hydroformed frame with inherent deformation zones during frontal impact) with a dependent spring rear suspension. Regarding the front suspension, there is a gradual transition from the traditional spring design to independent spring and torsion bar suspensions, the latter being mainly used on all-wheel drive versions. In recent years, compact pickups of almost all world and local manufacturers have been equipped not only with a compact utilitarian 2-seater cabin of original design, but also with a more spacious and well-equipped one-and-a-half King-size cab for 2–4 seats, as well as a 5-seater double type Double cab with four doors. The main type of engine for compact pickups today is an injection petrol internal combustion engine with 4 or 6 cylinders, but a small-capacity diesel engine , usually a 4-cylinder turbocharged, is becoming more common. Compact pickups are joined by pickups made on the basis of medium-sized SUVs, for example, domestic UAZ Cargo and UAZ Pickup , as well as the English Land Rover Defender Pick Up (discontinued) and the Austro-German Mercedes-Benz Gelanderwagen W461.
At the moment, compact pickups (including the American market) are considered such models as:
- Ford Ranger (discontinued for the US market; T6 generation model available for other markets)
- Great Wall Wingle 6
- Mazda BT-50 (on the same platform as the Ford Ranger (T6) discontinued)
- Mitsubishi L200
- Ssangyong Actyon Sports
- UAZ Pickup
Mid-size pickups . Structurally, mid-size pickups do not differ from compact pickups and are prevalent mainly in North America, located in a market niche between compact and full-size pickups. Currently, in the marketing plan, not on the American market, they practically do not stand out as a separate category from the class of compact pickups, since the latter have already actually caught up to the “mid-size” in terms of size.
At the moment, medium-sized pickups on the North American market can be considered such formally “compact” models, such as:
- Chevrolet colorado
- GMC Canyon
- Honda Ridgeline
- Isuzu D-Max
- Nissan Navara / Frontier
- Toyota Hilux / Toyota Tacoma
- Volkswagen Amarok
Full Size Pickups
Full-size pickups are large cars, usually at least 5.5 meters in length (extended versions - over 7 meters) and about 2 meters in width, which is comparable to the dimensions of small and even medium-sized trucks. An attractive factor for a number of consumers in such pickups is the availability of versions with a full-sized 5-6-seat cabin with two rows of seats and, in most cases, four doors. The main full-sized market is North America. The main manufacturers are Ford , General Motors and Ram (formerly Dodge) . For more than 20 years at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries, full-size pickups remained the best-selling cars in the United States, individual models (Ford F-series) sold here with print runs of over 1 million a year. Gradually, Japanese manufacturers (primarily Toyota and Nissan) began to penetrate into this segment, winning each year an ever more noticeable share of the market, which was previously virtually exclusive for the Big Three. Rising fuel prices and increasing environmental taxes have significantly reduced consumer interest in such voracious cars, so in recent years the Big Three has stepped up efforts to create more economical full-size pickups, for example, by creating hybrid gas-electric versions.
Full-size pickups in the US market are divided into two main categories:
1st category - light versions, are indicated by the numbers 1500 (150) and, with a total weight of less than 3500 kg and a payload of 500–1200 kg, are formally assigned to the passenger category. At present, cars of this class are equipped exclusively with gasoline engines of 4-6 liters. On such pickups, the front suspension can be an independent spring or torsion bar (mainly 4x4 or 4WD versions), and the spring-dependent one is almost never found. The rear suspension on most models is spring dependent, but on luxury models, for example, the Cadillac Escalade EXT and Lincoln Mark LT (discontinued), can also be multi-link spring or on air cylinders .
Currently, full-size light-duty pickups in the North American market include models such as:
- Cadillac Escalade EXT (Discontinued)
- Chevrolet Avalanche (discontinued)
- Chevrolet Silverado 1500
- GMC Sierra 1500
- Ram P / U
- Ford F-150
- Nissan Titan
- Toyota Tundra
2nd category - heavy versions, designated 2500 (250) - 4500 (450). These are already light trucks, the total mass exceeds 3500 kg. Intended for transportation in the back of 1100-2700 kg and transportation of heavy trailers with a gross weight of 6-11 tons. The machines are equipped with both gasoline engines with a volume of 5.4–6.8 liters and diesel engines with a volume of 5.9–7.3 liters. Suspension of all wheels dependent spring.
Heavy-duty full-size pickups:
- Chevrolet Silverado 2500/3500
- GMC Sierra 2500/3500
- Ram 2500/3500
- Ford F-250 / F-350 / F-450 Super Duty
Outwardly, giant pickups have practically no economic value and are produced in very limited quantities, primarily for image purposes. Gigantic pickups based on military vehicles also mainly serve manufacturers as a visual demonstration of the possibilities for producing dual-use cars. From the basic trucks they differ only in the presence of a low single-sided platform (often with a tipper mechanism) and a cabin with a particularly luxurious finish.
In 2004, International introduced the world's largest pickup truck - International CXT . The machine was created on the basis of the Medium Truck International 7300, with a permissible gross weight of 20 tons.
Dimensions L / W / H - 6550/2438/2750 mm
Wheelbase - 4540 mm
Machine weight - 6.6 tons
Payload - 5.5 tons
Permissible trailer weight - 17.5 tons
Engines - In-line diesel 6-cylinder with a volume of 7.6 and 9.3 liters, with a capacity of 245-310 hp
Allison 2500HD 5-speed automatic transmission
Then came the International RXT , unlike the previous model, off-road operation is not provided.
And, finally, the more compact, off-road International MXT model, its modified and armored version of the MXT-MV , was highly praised by the Pentagon and will soon replace the usual Hammers ( HMMWV ) in the US Army.
Dimensions L / W / H - 6300/2438/2286 mm
Ground clearance - 300 mm
Machine weight - 4.8 tons
Payload - 1.8 tons
Permissible trailer weight - 7 tons
Engine - International VT365 Diesel V8, 6 liter, 300 hp and MKM = 720 Nm
Allison 2200 RDS automatic 5-speed gearbox
Wheels - Pro Comp 40x13.50 R20
The price in America is 89.5-130 thousand dollars.
Naturally, after that, other truck manufacturers did not remain deprived. Giant pickups based on the Ford F-650 , Freightliner M2 , Chevrolet Kodiak , GMC TopKick were released . The latter has already managed to light up in the film "Transformers" , in the role of one of the space robots Ironheid .
Armored Army Pickup Truck International MXT-MV
- Types of car bodies
- Trophy truck