Pisa ( Italian: Pisa , Latin: Pisae ) is an Italian city and commune in the Tuscany region, 10 km from the Ligurian Sea , the administrative center of the province of the same name .
|History and Geography|
|Center height||4 m|
|Timezone||UTC + 1 , in summer UTC + 2|
|Population||87,353 people ( 2008 )|
|Density||489 people / km²|
|Katoykonim||Fucked, Fucked, Fucked |
|Telephone code||+39 050|
(Italian) (English) (French) (German) (Spanish)
An unofficial symbol of the city is Leaning Tower , which since 1986, together with the square , cathedral and baptistery, has the status of a World Heritage Site .
The patron saint of the city is St. Rainerius ( Italian: San Ranieri ). City festival - June 17th .
The city is located at an altitude of 4 meters above sea level. It covers an area of 185 km ². The city flows the Arno River. It has 87,353 residents ( 2008 ). The population density is 472 people / km².
Pisa, as well as throughout central and southern Italy, is characterized by a Mediterranean climate.
|Absolute maximum, ° C||17.6||21.0||24.0||27.9||30.9||35.0||37.8||38.8||36,2||30,2||24.0||20,4||38.8|
|Average maximum, ° C||11,4||12.6||15,2||17.8||22.2||26.0||29.4||29.5||25.7||20.9||15.3||11.8||19.82|
|Average temperature, ° C||6.8||7.6||9.8||12.5||16,4||20,0||23.1||23,4||20,0||15.8||10.7||7.6||14.48|
|Average minimum ° C||2.2||2,5||4.4||7.2||10.7||14.1||16.7||17,2||14.3||10.7||6.1||3.4||9.13|
|Absolute minimum, ° C||−13.8||−8.4||−8.2||−3.2||2,8||5.8||8.8||8.2||3.8||0.3||−7.2||−7.2||−13.8|
|Precipitation rate, mm||63,4||57.5||59.8||89.1||61.5||47.8||25,4||49.4||101.5||140.3||123.5||74,4||893.6|
|Source: Servizio Meteorologico. Temperature and Precipitation, 1971-2000. |
|Relative humidity and the number of hours of sunshine, 1961-1990 |
|Relative humidity, %||75||71||70||72||72||70||67||68||71||72||74||76||71.5|
Before the Romans, Pisa was probably inhabited by Ligurians . After 180 BC e. - a colony of the Roman Republic and one of its naval bases. The existence of the Pisa diocese has been known since 313.
Medieval Pisa is an example of a commercial city-state (see the Leaning Republic of Pisa ). Pisans were at the forefront of the Italians ’struggle with the Saracen aggression, in 1016, in alliance with Genoa, they cleared Sardinia from the Arabs, and in 1063 they ravaged the Muslim Palermo . The Republic of Pisa was in a state of almost continuous hostility with the Genoese Republic at sea and with Lucca and Florence on land.
In the XII-XIII centuries, the city conducts a large construction in the Romanesque style ; a family of talented artists and artisans of Pisano works on its decoration, and the Leaning School of Painting in Pisa blooms.
Despite the fact that the citizens of Pisa secured the support of the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire and strengthened their positions during the Crusades , the end of the golden age of Pisa statehood was defeated by the Genoese in 1284 at the Battle of Meloria . The reason for the weakening of the sea power of the city lay in the siltation of Arno. The change in the riverbed completely cut off Pisa from maritime trade.
In 1406, Pisa was captured by the Florentines. The city managed for a short time (1494-1509) to regain its independence in the turmoil of the Italian wars , but after returning to Medici rule the city lost all political significance.
In 1564, Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa. He studied and taught at the local university , which is the oldest in Tuscany. The Botanical Garden at the University was established by Cosimo I in 1544; he disputes with Padua the right to be called the first in the world.
Many Pisan or Tuscan dishes are distinguished by aromas and pungency. The most common Pisa dishes are white San Michele bean soup, frog soup and Pisa soup.
The famous cathedral complex on Piazza dei Miracoli (“Square of Miracles”) is located away from the modern city center and includes the following monuments:
- Leaning Tower of Pisa ( Italian: Duomo di Pisa )
- Leaning Tower of Pisa ( Italian: Torre pendente di Pisa )
- Leaning Baptistery of Pisa ( Italian: Battistero di San Giovanni )
- Campo Santo Cemetery ( Italian: Camposanto Monumentale )
- Cathedral Museum
- Museum of Synopias
- San Matteo Museum
- Museum of the Palazzo Reale [four]
- Museum of Graphics (Palazzo Lanfranchi)
- Santa Maria della Spina (Pisa)
- ً Santa Maria del Carmine
- San Paolo a Ripa d'Arno
- Knights of St. Stephen
- Botanical Garden
- Knights Square of St. Stephen
- Palazzo Agostini
- Borgo Stretto District
|Piazza dei Miracoli||Campo Santo||Santa Maria della Spina||Bridge over Arno|
- Gorodetskaya I. L., Levashov E. A. Pisa // Russian names of inhabitants: Dictionary-reference book. - M .: AST , 2003 .-- S. 230. - 363 p. - 5,000 copies. - ISBN 5-17-016914-0 .
- PISA / S.GIUSTO . Servizio Meteorologico. Date of treatment April 26, 2014.
- Servizio Meteorologico. Relative humidity and the number of hours of sunshine, 1961-1990. S. Giusto Tabella CLINO 1961-1990 Pisa . Servizio Meteorologico. Date accessed April 26, 2014. Inaccessible link.
- Pisa - Museo Nazionale di Palazzo Reale