The Ministry of Foreign Trade is the main body of the state monopoly of foreign trade of the USSR .
Decree on the nationalization of foreign trade
Soviet foreign trade was carried out on the basis of the state monopoly introduced by the decree of the Council of People's Commissars of April 22, 1918 "On the nationalization of foreign trade"  . Article 1 stated that “All foreign trade is nationalized. Trade transactions for the purchase and sale of all kinds of products (mining, manufacturing, agriculture, etc.) with foreign countries and individual trading enterprises abroad are made on behalf of the Russian Republic by specially authorized bodies. In addition to these bodies, any trade transactions with foreign countries for the import and export are prohibited. " According to the decree, the direct state leadership of foreign trade was entrusted to the People's Commissariat of Trade and Industry, renamed in 1920 to the People's Commissariat of Foreign Trade (“Collection of Laws”, 1920, No. 53, Art. 235). Foreign trade transactions could be carried out henceforth only by bodies specially authorized by the state.
The People's Commissariat of Foreign Trade of the RSFSR was established in 1920. In 1922, the Commissariat of Foreign Trade of the USSR appeared, and in 1924, the Commissariat of Internal Trade of the USSR, which in 1925 was merged into a single Commissariat of foreign and domestic trade. In 1930, the People's Commissars were again separated by the People's Commissariat for Foreign Trade and the People's Commissariat of Supply. In 1953, the Ministries of Foreign and Domestic Trade merged into the Ministry of Foreign and Domestic Trade, which was again divided in 1958. Later, the Ministry of Foreign Trade was also added to the State Committee for Foreign Economic Relations.
People's Commissariat of Trade and Industry (NKTiP RSFSR)
Established in 1917.
- Nogin, Viktor Pavlovich - until 03.11.1917
- Smirnov, Vladimir Mikhailovich 3.11.1917-1918 
- Time and. v. Bronsky, Mechislav Genrikhovich 18.03. - 11/13/1918
- Krasin, Leonid Borisovich 1919-1920
- Deputy Commissar:
- Bronsky, Mechislav Genrikhovich 1917—1918
- Elizarov Mark Timofeevich 1918-1919
- Solomon, Georgy Alexandrovich 1919-1920
- Gorchakov, Sergey G. 1918 - 1920
People's Commissariat of Foreign Trade of the RSFSR (NKVT RSFSR)
Created in 1920 through the reorganization of the People's Commissariat of Trade and Industry of the RSFSR.
- Krasin, Leonid Borisovich
- Deputy Commissar:
- Solomon, Georgy Alexandrovich 1920
- Scheinman, Aron Lvovich 1920
- Lezhava, Andrei Matveevich 1920 - 1922
- Gorchakov, Sergey G. 1920 - 1921
People's Commissariat of Foreign Trade of the USSR (NKVT USSR)
Created in 1922 through the reorganization of the People's Commissariat of Foreign Trade of the RSFSR.
- Krasin, Leonid Borisovich 1922 - 1925 .
- Frumkin, Moses Ilyich 1922 - 1924 .
- Avanesov, Varlaam Alexandrovich 1924 - 1925 .
People's Commissariat (People's Commissariat) of external and internal trade of the USSR
In November 1925 , the USSR Commissariat of Trade and the USSR Foreign Trade Commissariat of Foreign Affairs were merged into the People's Commissariat (Commissariat) of the USSR foreign and domestic trade.
- Tsurupa, Alexander Dmitrievich 1925 - January 16, 1926
- Kamenev, Lev Borisovich January 16, 1926 - August 14, 1926
- Mikoyan, Anastas Ivanovich August 14, 1926 - November 22, 1930
- Deputy Commissar:
- Krasin, Leonid Borisovich 1925 - 1926
- Scheinman, Aron Lvovich 1925 - 1926
People's Commissariat (People's Commissariat) of USSR Foreign Trade
- 1930 - 1937 Rozengolts, Arkady Pavlovich
- 1937? —1938 Chvyalev, Evgeny Denisovich
- 1938 - 1946 Mikoyan, Anastas Ivanovich
- Deputy Commissar:
- Weizer, Israel Yakovlevich 1930 - 1934
- 1937-1938? Chvyalev, Evgeny Denisovich
- ? —1940 Rozov, David Aronovich
Ministry of Foreign Trade
In 1946, the USSR Foreign Trade Ministry was first created by reorganizing the USSR Foreign Trade Commissariat.
From March 5 to August 24, 1953, it was united with the Ministry of Internal Trade and was called the Ministry of Internal and Foreign Trade .
August 24, 1953 By the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the Ministry of Foreign Trade was again formed.
Executives: see Foreign Trade Ministers
USSR Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations
In 1988, during the Perestroika , the Ministry of Foreign Trade was finally abolished and ended an independent existence.
The Ministry of Foreign Trade with the USSR State Committee for Foreign Economic Relations ( GKES USSR ) was merged into the USSR Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations. The GKES Chairman became the head of the new ministry.   . The ministry existed in this form until the USSR ceased to exist in December 1991 (by decree of the RSFSR Government No. 50 of December 18, 1991, the material basis of the USSR MFER in Russia and abroad was transferred to the RSFSR Foreign Economic Relations Committee  ).
- Katushev, Konstantin Fedorovich
Legal base and authorized bodies
Planning, Coordinating and Governing Bodies
In Art. 14, p. H of the Constitution of the USSR in 1936, it was stated that foreign trade on the basis of the monopoly of foreign trade is subject to the jurisdiction of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic in the person of its highest state authorities and government bodies.  The system of government bodies responsible for managing foreign trade is headed by the USSR Council of Ministers . The State Planning Committee of the USSR Council of Ministers of the USSR ( Gosplan USSR ), which is responsible for the planning of exports and imports, participates in the management of foreign trade. The procedure for the sale and purchase of licenses for the use of inventions is determined by the State Committee of the USSR Council of Ministers on Science and Technology ( GKNT of the USSR ).
Ministry of Foreign Trade as the main executive body
The direct state management of foreign trade is carried out by the Federal Ministry of Foreign Trade. According to the Regulation on this ministry (formerly People's Commissariat) of November 12, 1923 (SU 1923, No. 108, Art. 1035), it was created "to guide all foreign trade activities of the USSR on the basis of state monopoly." Abroad, it is under the jurisdiction of the USSR trade missions.
Headquarters of the Foreign Trade Ministry
The central office of the Ministry of Foreign Trade was located in Moscow in a high-rise building on Smolenskaya-Sennaya Square , No. 32/34, which also housed the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs .
- Secretariat and Office of the Minister of Foreign Trade
- Secretaries of the Deputy Ministers of Foreign Trade
- Board of the Ministry of Foreign Trade
- Heads (main administrations)
- Chief Engineering and Technical Department (MITU)
- Personnel management
- Computing Center
- Partcom (as a district committee)
- Komsomol Committee (as a district committee)
- Trade union committee
Educational and Scientific Institutions
- Institutions directly under the Ministry of Foreign Trade:
- All-Union Academy of Foreign Trade (VABT) , which in 2006 celebrated its 75th anniversary. Over the years of its existence, it has released into the world of international economics more than 15 thousand international economists. Back in the 1970-1980s, she successfully armed her graduates with knowledge in such areas as management and marketing, while in other economic universities they did not even know these words. At the same time, these traditions are combined with the introduction of innovative approaches to the training of students and trainees, with the ability to keep up with the times and comprehensively prepare their graduates for successful work and career in the 21st century. 
- All-Union Market Research Institute (VNIKI MWT USSR). The Market Research Institute (NIKI) was established in 1947 under the USSR Ministry of Foreign Trade in order to provide scientific information to the Ministry and other state organizations and departments in the formulation of foreign economic policy and the solution of practical issues of foreign trade. In 1978, the Institute received the status of the All-Union (VNIKI) and in 1992 - All-Russian. [eight]
- Institutions and faculties that trained personnel for the Ministry of Foreign Trade;
- Faculty of IER Moscow State Institute of Foreign Affairs
- Faculty of IER of Moscow Financial Institute
Territorial representatives of the Ministries of Foreign Trade
In the late Soviet period, there were no foreign trade ministries at the republican level (in the Union republics of the USSR). The functions of representation and coordination of foreign trade activities in their territories were performed by authorized representatives of the Ministry of Foreign Trade.
All-Union Foreign Trade Associations
All-Union foreign trade associations (BBO), on the basis and within their charters, foreign trade plans, export and import permits and licenses, carried out export and import operations in a certain range of goods and services assigned to each association.
Foreign trade associations are independent economic organizations that enjoy the rights of legal entities. According to their obligations, they bear separate property liability.
Abroad, the functions of foreign trade were carried out by the trade missions of the USSR subordinated to the Ministry of Foreign Trade.
Other foreign trade authorities
- Prodintorg (founded in 1952)
- Soyuzplodoimport (1960)
- Certain powers to manage foreign trade related to the construction abroad of industrial and other facilities with the help of the Soviet Union were also provided to the USSR State Committee for Foreign Economic Relations ( GKES USSR ), established in 1957 (initially under the USSR Council of Ministers).
- Separate rights for the implementation of foreign trade activities also had Tsentrosoyuz and its structural bodies.
In 1966, the foreign trade commodity flows of agricultural products were divided: Prodintorg was mainly engaged in agricultural goods of animal origin, and Soyuzplodoimport - vegetable: tea, coffee, cocoa beans, champagne , vodka .
The following All-Union associations and offices (incomplete list) also operated at various times: Soyuznefteexport (1931), Soyuzpromexport , Eksportles , Exportkhleb (1923), Exportly , Soyuzpushnina (1931), Tekhnoexport "," Raznoexport "," Soyuzzagotexport "(1932)," Promsiryeimport "," Technopromimport "," Stankoimport "," Machinoimport "," Raznoimport "(1936)," International Book "(1923)," Vostokintorg "," Sovmongoltorg "" Dalintorg "," Sovfraht "(1929)," Iransovtrans "(1935)," Lenvneshtrans "," Soveksportfilm "(1924/45)," Skotoi port "(1932)
- In 1959, the first batch of Soviet Moskovskaya vodka was supplied abroad.
- Vneshtorgbank USSR
- Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Russia
- Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA)
- List of ministers of trade of Russia
- Decree of the Council of People's Commissars. On the nationalization of foreign trade
- A. L. Sidorov “Historical Notes” Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1990 p. 20
- RESOLUTION OF THE USSR COUNCIL FROM 03.12.1988 N 320 ON GENERAL DIAGRAM OF THE MANAGEMENT OF THE MINISTRY OF FOREIGN ECONOMIC RELATIONS OF THE USSR
- RESOLUTION OF THE USSR SOVMIN FROM 03.12.1988 N 320 RESOLUTION OF THE USSR SOVMIN FROM 05/18/1989 N 412 ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF SOVIET ORGANIZATIONS ABROAD
- On the Committee for Foreign Economic Relations under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the RSFSR . Decree of the Government of the RSFSR № 50 . Electronic Fund of legal and scientific and technical information (December 18, 1991). The appeal date is August 26, 2014.
- CONSTITUTION (BASIC LAW) OF THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC, Approved by the Extraordinary VIII Congress of the Soviets of the USSR on December 5, 1936
- Russian Foreign Trade Academy
- All-Russian Research Market Research Institute OJSC (“VNIKI”) (inaccessible link) . The appeal date is December 1, 2008. Archived September 8, 2010.