Chashniki ( Belorussian. Chashnikі ) is a city in the Vitebsk region of Belarus on the Ulla River (the left tributary of the Western Dvina ), 95 km from Vitebsk , 190 km from Minsk . The administrative center of the Chashniksky district . It is connected with highways with Beshenkovichi , Senno , Orsha , Lepel , Novoluklem . 2 km from the city - the railway station of the same name on the line Orsha - Lepel . The population is 8,752 people (as of January 1, 2017)  .
chairman of the district executive committee
|Mikhail Ivanovich Milchanin |
|History and Geography|
|Timezone||UTC + 3|
|Population||↘ 8,752  people ( 2017 )|
|Telephone code||+375 2133|
- 1 History
- 2 population
- 3 Economics
- 4 Transport
- 5 Attractions
- 6 Sports
- 7 Twin Cities
- 8 See also
- 9 notes
- 10 Literature
- 11 Links
The first mention of Chashniki dates back to 1504 in the list of the largest settlements of the Polotsk voivodship of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania , belonged to the princes Lukomsky , from the end of the 16th century to the Kishki , Sapieham , Potocki , Volodkovichi .
In the Livonian war of 1558-1583, near Chashnik, the Lithuanians defeated Moscow troops in the battle of Ulla in 1564, when the governor Peter Shuisky died here in the Ivan fields , and in 1567, on the orders of Tsar Ivan IV, a wooden castle was built on the right bank of Ulla (see Chashnitsky castle ; burned in 1708). In 1580, King Stefan Batory was collecting troops at Chashnik for the campaign on Velikiye Luki , due to the position of the town, the Russians until the last moment could not know about the direction of the campaign  .
In the XVII century Chashniki was a trading place , in 1633 there were 109 houses and 16 shops in them, the Catholic Church was built by Dominicans .
In the XVIII century, a pier was built, workshops for the construction of merchant ships- plows . In 1791-1793 Chashniki was the center of the Polotsk Voivodeship . After the 2nd division of the Commonwealth in 1793, Chashniki became part of the Russian Empire.
In 1812, a battle took place near Chashniki between the French troops of Marshal Victor and the Russian army led by Prince Wittgenstein .
In 1868, after the uprising of 1863-1864 , the Catholic Dominican Church was rebuilt into the Orthodox.
The population at the end of the XIX century , according to the census of 1897, amounted to 4,590 people  people, the inhabitants were mainly engaged in agriculture, the Jews (3,480 people) - in trade and crafts.
In May 1925, the Chashniksky Regional Local History Society was created. At that time, the time of Belarusianization and the expansion of interest in studying the history of the native land, society launched an active work. The head of the company was H. Ivanov. A library was founded under him.
In the Chashniki seven-year plan (now secondary school No. 1), a local history circle was created, which was attended by 35 students. The circle was divided into three sections: natural-geographical, socio-economic and cultural-historical. The local lore society has been active in collecting vocabulary material. So, only in 1926, members of the society and the school local history circle collected 2800 local dialect words.
In the magazine Our Land you can find a list of local history topics: the paper factory Krasnaya Zvezda, the 400th anniversary of the Belarusian press and Vasily Tyapinsky , local history and school, the Chashniki canal of the Berezinsky system , the organization of the museum, agronomic work in the Chashniki district, the history of the town of Chashniki, Pochaevskoye breeding farm , cattle breeding in the Chashniksky district, Ivanovo commune "Red Wrestler".
So, in No. 4 of the magazine in 1926, a lot of material about the Krasnaya Zvezda factory was placed. The author of the article, K. Orel, claims that the company first had the name “Skin”. And it was named after the name of the niece of the founder Vincent Volodkovich ─ Skins. The author writes that in the place where the paper mill now stands, there was a water mill . In 1883, Vincent Volodkovich bought the mill and founded a paper factory, and later built a factory. The workers were local residents, the main craftsmen ─ Germans, employees ─ Poles. All paperwork was conducted in Polish .
Nearby, in the village of Vishkevichi , from 1902 to 1915 a factory worked, which produced wood pulp, which was then delivered to the factory by river. Basically, wallpaper paper was produced, which under Soviet rule was sent to the Vorovskiy factory for coloring in Minsk.
On January 1, 1926, about 300 workers were employed in paper production. At that time, there was an outpatient clinic at the factory, which received up to 4,000 patients every month. Two classrooms for the children of workers worked: Belarusian (two teachers) and Polish (one teacher)  .
Since September 27, 1938, the urban village, in 1939, 3.5 thousand inhabitants. From July 1941 to June 27, 1944 occupied by the Germans.
In 1959, 3 thousand inhabitants.
In 1962-1965 as part of the Beshenkovichi district . Since February 7, 1966 the city. In 1970, 6.6 thousand inhabitants.
|Population        :|
|3505||▼ 3016||▲ 6595||▲ 7564||▲ 10071||▼ 9401||▼ 8839||▼ 8817|
In 2017, 78 were born in Chashniki and 115 people died. The birth rate is 8.9 per 1000 people (the average in the district is 9.5, in the Vitebsk region - 9.6, in the Republic of Belarus - 10.8), the mortality rate is 13.1 per 1000 people (the average in the district - 18.1, in the Vitebsk region - 14.4, in the Republic of Belarus - 12.6)  .
The following enterprises operate in the city:
- OJSC " Paper Factory" Red Star " "
- Branch " Chashniksky distillery " of the state enterprise " Polotsk winery "
- OJSC " Chashnikov overalls "
- OJSC Chashniksky Agroservice
A bus station connects the city with the capital of the Republic of Minsk and the regional center of Vitebsk .
Republican roads pass through the city: Klichev - Bobruisk ), ( Bogushevsk (from M8) - Senno - Myadel ) and ( Beshenkovichi - Chashniki).(Chashniki -
|Orsha - Lepel|
2 km from the city in the village of Varki is the Chashniki railway station, from which the Orsha-Lepel branch is connected.
- Orthodox Transfiguration Church (1843-1845)
- Jewish cemetery 
- Memorial sign to Rear Admiral Vyacheslav Apanasenko
- Paper factory "Red Star" (in 1886 - "Skin")
Olimp football team playing in the football championship of the Vitebsk region.
- Viljaka , Latvia
- The first battle of Chashniki
- The second battle of Chashniki
- Fight near Chashniki in 1812
- Chashnitsky castle
- Ghetto in Chashniki
- Chashniksky district executive committee
- Population as of January 1, 2017 and the average annual population for 2016 in the Republic of Belarus by regions, districts, cities and urban-type settlements. // National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus. - Mn., 2017.
- S. M. Soloviev. The history of the Russian state ... S. 636
- Jewish Encyclopedia of Brockhaus and Efron.
- Our Land, No. 4, 1926
- All-Union Population Census of 1939. The number of urban population of the USSR by urban settlements and intracity regions . Demoscope Weekly . Date of treatment February 9, 2019.
- 1959 All-Union Population Census. Urban population of the Union republics (except the RSFSR), their territorial units, urban settlements, and urban areas by gender . Demoscope Weekly . Date of treatment February 9, 2019.
- 1970 All-Union Population Census. The number of urban population of the Union republics (except the RSFSR), their territorial units, urban settlements and urban areas by gender . Demoscope Weekly . Date of treatment February 9, 2019.
- All-Union Population Census of 1979. The number of urban population of the Union republics (except the RSFSR), their territorial units, urban settlements and urban areas by gender . Demoscope Weekly . Date of treatment February 9, 2019.
- All-Union Census of 1989. The number of urban population of the Union republics, their territorial units, urban settlements and urban areas by gender . Demoscope Weekly . Date of treatment February 9, 2019.
- Statistical Yearbook of the Vitebsk region. - Mn. : National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus, 2018. - P. 45–48.
- Statistical Yearbook of the Vitebsk region. - Vitebsk: Main Statistical Office of the Vitebsk Region, 2013. - P. 46–49.
- Demographic Yearbook of the Republic of Belarus. - Mn. : National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus, 2018. - P. 160–163.
- Jewish cemetery in Chashniki (English)
- Cities, towns and castles of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: Encyclopedia. - Mn. : Belarussian Encyclapedian name Petrusya Brokki, 2009 .-- S. 294. - 312 p. - 3000 copies. - ISBN 978-985-11-0432-7 .
- Soloviev S. M. History of the Russian state. SPb., 1864. Book. 3. T. 6.