Fernando Sor ( Spanish: Fernando Sor , full name José Ferrán Sor-i-Muntades - Cat. Josep Ferran Sors i Muntades ; February 14  1778 , Barcelona - July 10, 1839 , Paris ) - Spanish classical virtuoso guitarist and composer, one of the most significant classical guitarists of the 19th century.
|Full name||Jose Ferrand Sor Y Muntades|
|Date of Birth||February 14, 1778|
|Place of Birth||Barcelona|
|Date of death||July 10, 1839 (61 years old)|
|Place of death||Paris|
|Professions||Performer, composer, teacher|
From an early age he studied guitar, violin and cello , received a musical education at the choir school at the Montserrat Monastery, then studied at the military academy in Barcelona. He showed his composing abilities early: at the age of thirteen he composed the Solemn Mass for soloists, choir and organ, and in 1796 he wrote the opera Telemach, staged at the Santa Cruz Theater. In 1799 he moved to Madrid , held various administrative posts in Barcelona and Malaga . This period of creativity includes symphonies, string quartets, various compositions for voice with guitar and piano, as well as works for solo guitar.
With the invasion of French troops in Spain in 1808 and the outbreak of the war for independence, Sor took a patriotic position and wrote a number of revolutionary songs, among which the most famous were Vivir en cadenas and Venid, vencedores . However, in 1810, the composer, like most of the Spanish intelligentsia of that time, was forced to relinquish and take an administrative post under the auspices of the French. In 1813, French troops were driven out of Spain, and Soor went to Paris , where he began to conduct active concert and teaching activities. Two years later, the composer moved to London , where eleven collections of his Italian ariettes for voice and piano, as well as compositions for piano and guitar, were published. Four ballets of Sora were also staged in the capital of Great Britain between 1821 and 1824 , among which Cinderella was the most successful. This work was also staged in Paris (more than 100 times).
In 1823, Sor, at the insistence of his wife, the famous ballerina Gyullen-Sor , who received an invitation from the director of the Moscow Theater Kokoshkin , moved with his wife to Moscow . The following year, 1824, Cinderella was staged at the Moscow Theater on Mokhovaya . The production based on the choreography of Francois Albert was performed by Feliciate Güllen-Sor (she also danced the main part) and the Moscow ballet dancer Ivan Lobanov . Also, “Cinderella” was performed on January 6, 1825 at the opening of the Moscow Bolshoi Theater, which was rebuilt after a fire.
Three years later, the composer parted with his wife and returned to Paris, where he published a number of his new compositions, including Memoirs of Russia, in which he used Russian folk melodies. Continuing his performing and pedagogical career in France, Sor met his famous compatriot Dionisio Aguado , with whom he later often performed in a duet.
The last years of Sora's life were overshadowed by the death of his daughter (he devoted his memory to his last orchestral composition - Mass). The composer died of cancer in 1839 and was buried in the Montmartre cemetery in an anonymous grave discovered only a hundred years later  .
Sora's creativity played a huge role in the development of guitar art. Having a lot of concerts throughout Europe, he gained fame as an outstanding virtuoso, along with famous contemporary guitarists ( Mauro Giuliani , Matteo Carcassi , Ferdinando Carulli ). As a composer, Sor is best known for his compositions for guitar (over 60), included in the repertoire of leading world performers, as well as songs and romances marked by vivid melodism. The composer interprets the guitar as a serious musical instrument with rich polyphonic capabilities. The style of Sora was influenced by composers of Viennese classicism, primarily Haydn and Mozart . Soar is also of great importance as an educator - his Méthode pour la Guitare , published in 1830 , was hugely popular. Among Sora's students are a number of subsequently known guitarists, including Napoleon Coast , who edited and published many of his compositions after the composer's death.
- 1796 - Telemachus
- Don Trastullo (not finished, lost)
- Ballets (indicated the place of first production)
- 1821 - Smyrna Fair (London, lost)
- 1821 - “The Bountiful Master” (London, lost)
- 1822 - Cinderella (London)
- 1823 - “Artist in Love” (London, in the Moscow version - “Alphonse and Leonora, or Artist in Love”, Maly Theater , 1824, violin solo written specially for A. M. Amatov )
- 1826 - Hercules and Omfala (Moscow)
- June 11, 1827 - “Sicilian, or Love-painter” (overture and several dance numbers - Jean-Madeleine Schneichshoffer, false pas de deux for Maria Taglioni's debut on July 23 — Josef Mayseder ); choreographer Anatole , Paris Opera
- 1828 - Hassan and Caliph (London, lost)
- Compositions for Guitar
- Thirty Divertissements
- Ten cycles of variations, including Variations on the theme of Mozart
- Eleven fantasies
- Thirty Eight Short Pieces
- Twenty Four Etudes
- Twelve minuets
- Big solo, op. 14
- Serenade, op. 37
- Three Sonatas, op. 15, op. 22, op. 25
- Twenty four waltzes
- Six Bagatelles
- Arrangement of the arias from “The Magic Flute ” by Mozart, op. 19 and others
- Vocal compositions
- Bolero and Segidilla for voice with guitar or piano
- Italian ariettes for voice and piano
- Spanish, Italian and English songs and duets for voice and piano
- Other works
- Waltzes, quadrille and other pieces for piano two and four hands
- Three Pieces for Harp
- Symphony in F Major (1804)
- Two symphonies (lost)
- Three string quartets (lost)
- Quartet for Guitar and String Trio (lost)
- Piris B. Fernando Sor: une guitare à l'orée du Romantisme. - Paris, 1989