Heinrich Gustav Magnus ( German: Heinrich-Gustav Magnus ; May 2, 1802 , Berlin , - April 4, 1870 , ibid.) famous German physicist and chemist.
|Heinrich Gustav Magnus|
|Date of Birth|
|Place of Birth||Berlin , Prussia|
|Date of death|
|Place of death||Berlin , Prussia|
|Scientific field||physicist , chemist|
|Place of work||Berlin University|
|Famous students||Anton Oberbeck|
|Known as||Magnus effect|
|Awards and prizes|
Born in a Jewish family, adopted Christianity  .
He studied physics and chemistry for 6 years - first at the University of Berlin , then another year (1828) in Stockholm , in the Jöns Berzelius laboratory, and later in Paris, at Gay-Lussac and Tenard . In 1831, Magnus was invited as a lecturer in physics and technology at the University of Berlin , then he was a professor of physics until 1869. In 1840, Magnus was elected a member of the Berlin Academy, since 1854 he was a corresponding member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences .
Magnus worked tirelessly all his life on a variety of issues in physics and chemistry. As a student (1825), he published his first work on the spontaneous combustion of metal powders; in 1828, he discovered the platinum salt named after him (PtCl 2NH3). In 1827-33, he was primarily engaged in chemistry, then work in the field of physics. Of these, the most famous are studies on the absorption of gases by blood (1837-45), on the expansion of gases from heating (1841-44), on the elasticity of water vapor and aqueous solutions (1844-54), on thermoelectricity (1851), electrolysis (1856) , induction currents (1858-61), thermal conductivity of gases (1860), polarization of radiant heat (1866-68) and the issue of heat color of gases (since 1861).
No less famous is Magnus and as a teacher; most outstanding modern German physicists came out of his laboratory, and some Russian scientists worked in it. For more details, see Hoffmann, “Zur Erinnerung an GM” (Berl, 1871), and Helmholtz, “Zum Ged ä chtniss an GM” (Berl, 1871).
- Magnus effect
- Magnus, Heinrich-Gustav // Encyclopedic dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron : in 86 tons (82 tons and 4 extra). - SPb. , 1890-1907.
- Khramov Yu. A. Magnus Heinrich Gustav (Magnus Heinrich Gustav) // Physics: A Biographical Reference / Ed. A.I. Akhiezer . - Ed. 2nd, rev. and add. - M .: Science , 1983. - p. 173. - 400 p. - 200 000 copies (in the lane)