Etienne-Gabriel Morelli ( fr. Etienne-Gabriel Morelly ; 1717 or 1718 - after 1778) - French thinker of the XVIII century.
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Little is known about Morelli, and all that is known is not entirely reliable. It is believed that he lived in the town of Vitry-le-Francois and worked as a teacher. Morelli is associated with the name of eight books published in 1743-1778 , however, even among contemporaries, the authorship of most of these books was in doubt.
The most noticeable are two works of Morelli. In 1753 , Morelli published the essay Basiliade, or Shipwreck on the Floating Islands ( French: La Basiliade ou le Naufrage des îles flottantes ), in which he painted pictures of a communist utopia . The book is based on the features of the development and functioning of the Inca empire , which Louis Boden called the "socialist empire"  . In response to her criticism in 1755 , Morelli published the treatise "The Code of Nature, or the Original Spirit of its Laws" ( French Code de La Nature ou le véritable Esprit de ses Loix ), where he substantiated their position in detail (contemporaries attributed more famous thinkers of the Enlightenment - Didro , Tussen , Labomel ).
In accordance with the ideas of Rousseau, Morelli believed that according to a natural order, a person is kind, but spoiled by private property . In the society of the future, Morelli wrote, “nothing will belong to anyone except objects that a person directly uses at the moment for his needs, pleasures, everyday work. Each citizen will make his personal contribution to the activities of the community (commune) in accordance with his abilities, his talent and his age. ” There is a point of view that it is to this Morelli passage that the slogan “ Each according to ability, each according to needs ”, formulated by Karl Marx , dates back.
Engels wrote in Anti-Dühring that Mably and Morelli created "directly communist theories."
- BNF ID : Open Data Platform
- German National Library , Berlin State Library , Bavarian State Library , etc. Record # 118736868 // General regulatory control (GND)
- Louis Baudin. A socialist empire: the Incas of Peru. - Princeton, New York, Toronto, London: Van Nostrand, 1961. - p. 224 (442 p.)
- C. Marx Criticism of the Gothic program
- Morelli. The code of nature, or the true spirit of its laws. - M .; L., 1956.
- Morelli (utopian communist) / Kamenetsky B.A. // Moesia - Morshansk. - M .: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1974. - ( Great Soviet Encyclopedia : [in 30 vol.] / Ch. Ed. A. M. Prokhorov ; 1969-1978, vol. 16).
- Polyansky F. Ya. Equal Communism Mellier, Morelli and Mably // World History of Economic Thought : In 6 volumes / Ch. ed. V.N. Cherkovets. - M .: Thought , 1987. - T. I. From the inception of economic thought to the first theoretical systems of political life. - S. 516-517. - 606 s. - 20,000 copies. - ISBN 5-244-00038-1 .
- Antonetti, Guy . Etienne-Gabriel Morelly: L'homme et sa famille. // Revue d'Histoire Littéraire de La France, mai-juin 1983, pp. 390-402.
- Antonetti, Guy . Etienne-Gabriel Morelly: l'écrivain et ses protecteurs. // Revue d'Histoire Littéraire de La France, janvier-février 1984, pp. 19-52.
- Bernardi W. , Morelly e Dom Deschamps. Utopia e ideologia nel secolo dei lumi, Firenze, 1969
- Wagner, Nicolas . Morelly, le méconnu des Lumières. - Paris: Klincksieck, 1978; 406 p.