Nikolai Vladislavovich Valentinov ( Volsky proper; 1879 , Morshansk - 1964 , Le Plessis-Robinson , France ) - Russian journalist , philosopher , economist .
|Birth name||Nikolai Vladislavovich Volsky|
|Date of Birth|
|Place of Birth||Morshansk|
|Date of death||July 26, 1964|
|Place of death||Le Plessis-Robinson , France|
Born in Morshansk . His father, Volsky, Vladislav Kazimirovich, attorney at law, the leader of the Morshansk nobility, belonged to the ancient Polish noble family of the Dunin-Volskys. His mother, Nadezhda Ivanovna, was from a family of Morshansk merchants, landowners, and horse breeders of the Rymarevs, hereditary honorary citizens of Morshansk.
N. V. Volsky graduated from the Morshansk Real School in 1896. He studied at the Mining and Technological Institutes in St. Petersburg (1897–1898), began to engage in revolutionary social democratic activities, for which he was arrested and exiled to Ufa , where he lived until 1900 , working in railway workshops. In 1900-01 he continued his studies at the Kiev Polytechnic Institute . From 1899 it was published in the left press. In 1901 he was again arrested for participating in a demonstration and spent six months in Butyrka prison. After his release, he returned to Kiev and in 1902-03 he worked in the Kiev newspaper. Since 1903, the Bolshevik . He was arrested again, released on December 31, 1903. He left for Geneva, where he became close with Lenin . Having parted with him on philosophical problems, from 1904 he moved to the Menshevik camp. In 1905, he was a co-editor of the Pskov newspaper, the first legal social democratic newspaper. In 1904-05 he lived illegally in Kharkov , then until 1908 in Moscow. He led the military organization of the Menshevik Moscow Group of the RSDLP.
After the suppression of the First Russian Revolution, the liquidator . He called for a revision of Marxism, "supplementing" it with the teachings of E. Mach and R. Avenarius . He took the pseudonym of “Valentinov” after the name of his wife, Valentina Nikolaevna, the daughter of the famous Olympian Olympian Lyukianenko (Alekseeva).
From 1908 to 1911 he worked in the "Kiev thought" (in 1909 for a short time he was arrested again). In 1911-1928 he lived and worked in Moscow. In 1911-13 he was the actual editor of the Russian Word . From the end of 1916, he advocated the conclusion of a separate peace with Germany, therefore he broke up with the Mensheviks and finally broke with them in the summer of 1917. In 1917–1918 in the Socialist-Revolutionary newspaper The Power of the People. In 1917 he published the book "The Revolution and the Agrarian Program of the Social Revolutionaries".
October Revolution did not accept. The policy of war communism provoked a protest by N. Volsky. He considered it non-life, artificially invented, contrary to the elementary laws of economics. Volsky contrasted the policy of war communism with the NEP . In 1922-1928, deputy editor-in-chief of the Supreme Soviet of the National Economy Academy "Commerce and Industry Gazette". In 1928, Valentinov was sent to Paris and until 1930 was the editor of the organ of the Soviet trade mission in Paris, “The Economic Life of the Soviets” (in French).
In 1930 he moved to the position of an emigrant. He lived in Paris and until his death he worked and published articles in numerous emigre and western magazines and newspapers: Parisian “Modern Notes”, “New Russia” by Kerensky, “ Russian Notes ” by Milyukov and Vishnyak, in Milyukovsky newspaper “Latest News”, in magazines “Narodnaya Pravda”, “At the Turn”, “New Journal”, “Socialist Bulletin”, “New Russia”, “Bridges”, in the newspapers “Revival”, “Russian Thought” and “ New Russian Word ”.
In 1956, he wrote the book NEP and the Party Crisis after Lenin's Death (first published in Russia in 1991)  , which became one of the main sources for Western historians of the Soviet economy. In exile, he also participated in the philosophical controversy of the “realists” and “idealists”, sharply criticizing the “idealistic” teachings of E. Trubetskoy, P. Struve, S. Bulgakov and others.
About the birth year of N. Volsky.
In the collection of metric books of the Tambov province (metric books of churches in the city of Morshansk, f.1049, op.4) stored in the State Archives of the Tambov region, there is information about N. V. Volsky. In the register book of the Cathedral Church of Morshansk for 1880 there is a record about the birth of Nikolai Volsky of the following content:
Number of metric notation: 40. Date of birth: May 7, baptism: May 8, 1880 Name: Nikolay. Parents: “Titular Councilor Vladislav Kazimirovich Volsky of the Catholic Confession, his wife Nadezhda Ivanova is Orthodox”.
Receivers: "Honorary Hereditary Citizen Alexei Ivanov Rymarev, Honorary Hereditary Citizen Antonina Ivanova Rymareva".
Also in the Extract from the labor list (questionnaire) Volsky N.V., stored in the Russian State Archives of Economics (f.870, op.243, d.291, l.19), by hand Volsky N.V. The date of his birth was written - May 7, 1880.
In many encyclopedic publications it appears that he was born in 1879, which, as we see, is erroneous.
He published a series of books about the personality, creativity, and philosophical ideas of V. I. Lenin: “Meeting with Lenin” (1953); "Little-known Lenin"; "The early years of Lenin."
- The philosophical structure of Marxism. Dialectical materialism, empirio-monism and empirio-critical philosophy. - M. , 1908.
- E. Mach and Marxism. - M. , 1908. - 115 p.
- Valentinov N. New economic policy and the crisis of the party after the death of Lenin. - M .: Sovremennik , 1991. - 367 p. - ISBN 5-270-01297-9 .
- Valentinov N. Heirs of Lenin / Ed.-comp. Yu. G. Felshtinsky . - M .: Terra , 1991. - 240 p.
- Valentinov N. Two years with the symbolists. - M .: Concord, 2000. - 384 p. - ISBN 5-293-00004-7 .
- Valentinov, Nikolay Vladislavovich / VF Pustarnakov // New philosophical encyclopedia : in 4 t. / Before. scientific - ed. Council V.S. Stepin . - 2nd ed., Corr. and add. - M .: Thought , 2010. - 2816 p.
- Valentinov, Nikolay Vladislavovich / Rosenthal I. S. // The Great Caucasus - the Grand Channel [Electronic resource]. - 2006. - p. 530-531. - (The Great Russian Encyclopedia : [in 35 t.] / Ch. Ed. Yu. S. Osipov ; 2004–2017, Vol. 4). - ISBN 5-85270-333-8 .
- Rosenthal I.S.N. Valentinov and others. XX century through the eyes of contemporaries. - M .: New chronograph, 2015. - 536 p. - ISBN 978-5-94881-295-3 .