Abdul Muslim Magomet oglu Magomayev ( azerb. Abdul Müslüm Məhəmməd oğlu Maqomayev , Muslim Magometovich Magomayev ; September 6 (18), 1885 , Grozny , Terek region , Russian Empire - July 28, 1937 , Nalchik , USSR ) - Azerbaijani , Soviet , Azerbaijani , Soviet Honored Art Worker of the Azerbaijan SSR (1935), one of the founders of Azerbaijani classical music, the Azerbaijan State Philharmonic Society was named after him. Grandfather of singer Muslim Magomayev .
|Full name||Abdul-Muslim Mahomet oglu Magomaev|
|Date of Birth||September 6 (18), 1885|
|Place of Birth||Grozny , Terek region , Russian Empire|
|Date of death||July 28, 1937 (51 years old)|
|Place of death||Nalchik , Kabardino-Balkarian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic , RSFSR , USSR|
|A country|| Russian Empire → |
composer , conductor
From childhood he was fond of music, participated in school amateur music , played in the orchestra of the Transcaucasian teacher’s seminary , there he met Uzeyir Hajibeyov , whom he maintained close friendship with all his life. After graduating from the seminary, he first worked as a teacher in the North Caucasus , and then in Azerbaijan , where after taking exams at the Tiflis Teachers' Institute, he donkey . There he joined the local opera company under the direction of Hajibeyov, first as a musician, and later as a conductor and director of the theater. Subsequently, he held senior posts in the People's Commissariat of Education of the Azerbaijan SSR .
He wrote two operas - Shah Ismail and Nargiz , the latter is the first Azerbaijani opera on Soviet themes . In the work of Magomayev, the influence of the national art of Azerbaijan , which he was interested in from an early age, can be traced. He is also the author of about three hundred symphonic arrangements of Azerbaijani folk dances , songs and other tunes .
He died on July 28, 1937 in Nalchik from tuberculosis .
Abdul-Muslim Magomet oglu Magomayev was born on September 6 (18), 1885 in Grozny      . Father - Magomet Magomayev was a weapons smith who moved to Grozny as a child. According to a legend transmitted to the Magomayev family, the little Mohammed brought Shamil to the Terrible   . According to other sources, Mohammed was born in Staryye Atagi   , there is also the opinion that it is impossible to establish the place of birth   .
The Magomayev family loved music very much  . The first music teacher for Abdul Muslim was his elder brother Mohammed, who was fond of painting and photography, who played well on flute and harmonica   . He taught Abdul-Muslim to play the last one. Later, while studying at the Grozny city school, Mohammed became the head of the school orchestra   , taught dance. For successes in painting, the school leadership suggested sending the young man to an art school in St. Petersburg , but the material situation of the family did not allow this  . The future composer, following the example of his brother, entered the Grozny city school   , which he graduated in 1900  .
In 1900, Abdul-Muslim enrolled as a student  in the Transcaucasian teacher’s seminary in Gori . There he made friends with Uzeyir Hajibeyov , with whom he had much in common, his friends were even born on the same day  . Having mastered the oboe , Magomayev became the soloist of the seminar orchestra    , whose repertoire included works by both Russian and European composers  . By the age of 18, Magomayev became a senior musician in the orchestra and often replaced the conductor    . Magomayev also sang in a school choir  .
At the seminary, Abdul-Muslim became interested in Caucasian folk music. He collected information about musical folklore so zealously that already in 1900 his recordings were presented at the World Exhibition in Paris . Here he wrote the first musical compositions: a waltz “Dreaming”, a mazurka “Seminarist” and a number of others  .
As students of the seminary, Muslim Magomayev and Uzeyir Hajibeyov in 1902 visited the father of Muslim Magomet Magomayev, who worked as a blacksmith in Icheri Bazaar  (in memory of this event, a memorial was established on the wall of the house in which Magomayev’s father lived board). At the end of the seminary in 1904 , Abdul-Muslim received a violin  and a cash prize  as a gift for excellent academic success.
After graduating from the seminary, Magomaev was obliged to work for some number of years as a teacher of a public school  . By distribution he was appointed one in the village of  Bekovichi  . There he organized a school choir, whose performances became popular among the local population  . In September 1905  , not finding work in Grozny  , Magomaev moved to Lankaran  . There he began to teach Russian language, history and chemistry  at a local school  , where he simultaneously created a music club  , which gave musical evenings and theater performances  . According to contemporaries, the activities of Abdul-Muslim made a significant contribution to the development of culture in this county town  , and the performances of the Lenkoran theater group were noted in the newspaper “Baku” in the column “Muslim Life”  .
In 1911 , at the end of his compulsory work, Magomayev passed exams externally at the Tiflis Teacher’s Institute    and moved to Baku , where he settled in a city school  located in Sabunchi  . Here, in addition to teaching at the school, he launched evening courses, at which he taught literacy to local workers  . With the outbreak of the Civil War , in 1918, he left this post  .
While teaching in Baku, Abdul-Muslim Magomayev began to collaborate with the local Muslim opera troupe under the direction of Uzeyir Hajibeyov . In 1911, immediately after the move, he began to play the violin in the orchestra of the Azerbaijan Musical Theater, created by the troupe   . In the same year, Hajibeyov went to study in Moscow , and in 1912 - to Petersburg , then Magomaev took upon himself the material support of his friend during his studies  . Magomaev took over the leadership of the theater together with Huseynkuli Sarabsky and Mamed-Hanafi Teregulov . Since 1912, he acted in it as a conductor  .
In 1913, Magomayev began writing the operas Love and Shah Ismail . “Love” was not added, only the aria written for the work was preserved  . Work on “Shah Ismail” was completed by 1916   . In the first edition of the opera, there were many conversational episodes, and music was based on the principles of improvisation and mugam  , in the second and third editions the dialogs were replaced with recitative , and improvisation gave way to choirs and arias  . Being one of the first works in which the ideas of folk music were solved within the framework of developed opera forms, Shah Ismail became an important milestone in the development of musical art in Azerbaijan  . In addition, in the process of finalizing the opera, Magomayev created one of the first musical notes of Azerbaijani folk music  . The premiere of the work was scheduled for 1916, but shortly before the planned date, the building of the Tagiyev Drama Theater , in which the opera was staged, burned down  . The second attempt at the premiere was scheduled for March 7 (20), 1919   . Huseyn Arablinsky , who was involved in the production as a director, was killed two days before the performance, but the premiere took place and was successful: the opera was marked with great success  . In 1938, as amended by Reinhold Glier, the opera Shah Ismail was shown during the Decade of Azerbaijani Art in Moscow  .
In 1920, the merits of Abdul-Muslim Magomayev in the field of public education were evaluated - he was elected chairman of the Union of Education Workers of the Azerbaijan SSR  . In 1921, Magomayev was appointed head of the art department of the People’s Commissariat of Education of Azerbaijan, after which he served as artistic director of the Azerbaijan Drama Theater , chief conductor of the Azerbaijan Opera and Ballet Theater  . In 1929, Magomayev became the music director of the Azerbaijan Radio Center  , and remained in this position until 1931  .
In 1932, he began to write an opera based on the plot of an epic legend about Korogly , but when he found out that Hajibeyov was writing a work on the same topic , he destroyed the drafts, believing that a friend would write an opera much better  . After that, he began writing the opera Nargiz , which tells about the struggle of the peasants of Azerbaijan for the establishment of Soviet power in the 20th century   . This work, which premiered in Baku on December 24, 1935  , was the first Azerbaijani opera on Soviet themes   .
In 1937, the composer fell ill with tuberculosis . According to family legend, the cause of the disease was the hypothermia obtained during the rescue of a wife who fell into the Kura River   . The disease was complicated and he went for treatment to Nalchik, where he died on June 28, 1937    . The composer was buried on the Alley of Honor in Baku  .
|Abdul-Muslim Magomayev with his son Jamal , the last known photo of the composer  .|
Muslim had two brothers and three sisters  . He was married to Baidigul Teregulova  , the sister of opera singer Hanafi Teregulova and Maleika Hajibeyova  (wife of Uzeyir Hajibeyov  ). The couple had two sons  : Jamal-Eddin and Mohammed  . The former in 1953-1957 served as Minister of Industry of the Azerbaijan SSR  , the latter was a theater artist and animator, went to the front of the Great Patriotic War despite his armor and died on April 24, 1945 when Berlin was captured  . In marriage with him, actress Aishet Kinzhalova gave birth to the son of Muslim  , who later became a pop and opera singer  .
The Musical Encyclopedia (1976) cites the following works by Magomayev  :
- Shah Ismail (1916, delivered in 1919 in Baku);
- Nargiz (written and delivered in 1935 in Baku).
- Musical comedy
- Horuz Bey (Mr. Rooster, not finished).
- For orchestra
- Fantasy Dervish
- March dedicated to the XVII Party Congress;
- March RV-8 and others.
- Music for the performances
- “Dead” Jalila Mammadkulizade
- " In 1905 " by Jafar Jabbarly
- Movie music
- "Art of Azerbaijan";
- "Our report" and others.
Contribution to Music
Abdul-Muslim Magomayev is the author of about 15 symphonic works, including two operas, marches, several rhapsodies. He also owns about a dozen vocal works on verses by Azerbaijani poets. Three of his unfinished works are known: the opera Love, the ballet Dali Mukhtar and the musical comedy Horuz Bey     . In addition, Magomayev is the author of musical accompaniment to theatrical productions (“Dead”, “In 1905” )  and films  (“The Art of Azerbaijan” and “Our Report”  ).
Magomaev ’s opera “Nargiz” is considered the first Azerbaijani opera built on classical musical and stage forms. The earlier operas of Magomayev and Hajibeyov are to some extent mugham  . Also, Magomayev is one of the first authors of the Azerbaijani mass song  .
Magomaev collected and systematized Chechen  , Azerbaijani and other Caucasian folklore  . He paid special attention to Azerbaijan, his authorship belongs to symphonic compositions of about three hundred Azerbaijani folk songs and dances, some of them were published in the collection "Azerbaijani folk songs" in 1927  . The collection includes the processing of folk works of both Magomayev and Hajibeyov     .
Magomayev’s work is based on the national art of the peoples of Azerbaijan  , the study of which he was fond of from school  . The composer did not pass by the experience of European and, first of all, Russian composers, weaving it with folk music  and thus bringing the latter to the world level  . At the same time, one can note the high ideological value of his works  : they reveal topics of both the national consciousness of Azerbaijanis and the struggle of the masses against the bourgeoisie  .
Rewards and memory
In 1935, Abdul-Muslim Magomayev was awarded the title of Honored Art Worker of the Azerbaijan SSR   . Named Magomayev:
- Azerbaijan State Philharmonic Society    ;
- street in the historical center of Baku  .
In front of the Philharmonic Hall is a bust of Abdul-Muslim Magomayev, opened in 1987. The bust was made by sculptor Omar Eldarov and architect Arif Salekhov  . A memorial plaque is hung on the wall of house number 41 on Nizami Street in Baku, where the composer lived.
Tombstone of Magomayev
The house in Baku where Magomayev lived
Bust of Magomayev in Baku (in front of the Philharmonic Hall named after him)
Muslim Magomayev Street in Baku (in Icheri Sheher )
Information about his father in Icheri Bazaar
- Musical Encyclopedia, 1976 .
- Soviet operas, 1982 , p. 411.
- Magomayev Abdul-Muslim Magometovich - article from the Great Soviet Encyclopedia .
- Magomayev Abdul-Muslim Magometovich . International Joint Biographical Center. Date of treatment September 12, 2016. Archived September 12, 2016.
- Ismailova, 1975 , p. four.
- Dedicated to the bright memory of the great composer . Muslim (online magazine). Date of treatment September 12, 2016. Archived September 12, 2016.
- Meshanenkova, 2013 , p. ten.
- Khadzhimuratova, Arsaliev, 2014 , p. 206.
- History of Chechnya, 2013 , § 2. New phenomena in the culture of Chechen society, p. 541.
- Magomaev, 1999 , p. ten.
- Ismailova, 1975 , p. five.
- Hajibeyov, 1938 .
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- Abbasov, 1952 .
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- Ismailova, 1975 , p. 13-14.
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