Fire engine - an operational vehicle based on a car chassis , which is equipped with fire-technical weapons, equipment and used in fire and rescue operations. [one]
In the USSR, fire trucks were produced on the chassis of serial trucks GAZ , ZIL , KAMAZ , URAL . In particular, the Torzhoksky Machine-Building Plant and the Vargashinsky Fire-Fighting and Special Equipment Plant were involved in the installation of specialized equipment for automobiles.
Gray, Israel (military)
Red White, Armenia
Red Yellow, France
The color schemes of fire trucks in Russia and most of the countries provide for red coloring of the body.
In Russia, the use of colorographic schemes by the fire department is regulated by law. Fire protection vehicles used to carry out urgent actions to protect the life and health of citizens must have special colorographic schemes applied to the outer surface. The main color of the outer surface coating is red, the contrasting color of the decorative strips or panels is white, the information inscription and the identification mark must contain the fire department number, departmental, territorial or other affiliation, alphanumeric designation of the car. 
The History of Fire Trucks in Russia
Car production society "G. A. Lesner ", 1904
Fire truck "Frese", 1904
PMZ-8 fire truck 1940s
Fire truck GAZ-51
Fire truck GAZ-53
The first fire truck in Russia was built in 1904 at the factory of the company " Frese and Co.". The car was equipped with a 8-cylinder single-cylinder engine . , was intended for delivery to the place of fire of a fire team of ten people. The equipment included two stairs, a stander ( hydrant column) and sleeves 80 fathoms long. In the same year, a fire truck on a Daimler chassis, equipped with a tank, pump, stander, fire hoses and designed to transport a fire crew of 14 people, was built by the St. Petersburg society G. A. Lesner . " The first fire truck for Moscow was also built at G. A. Lesner "in 1908. In 1913, the Russian-Baltic Carriage Building Plant produced several fire trucks on the Russo-Balt-D24-40 chassis  .
In the 1890s, Chief Police Officer of Moscow A. Vlasovsky invented a light-sound alarm (prototype of future flashing beacons ) on fire convoys. At night, all fire crews rode with flaming torches in buckets of kerosene suspended on sticks, which made a strong impression on the townspeople. He also authored the idea of sounds from signal horns when driving a convoy to warn crews and pedestrians, as well as the sound commands of a brand major or chief police officer who had put out the fire, during which two riding miners rode out  .
After the revolution in Russia, about a dozen active fire engines remained. Homemade fire trucks began to appear in the early 1920s. Old trucks were remade into auto rulers. There were also auto-barrels that delivered water to the fire. Some teams used the so-called “gas bottle” or “gas syringe” for first aid. On such a machine a small tank (up to 500 liters) was placed, a cylinder with compressed air or carbon dioxide (pressure up to 110 kg / cm²). By supplying air or gas from the cylinder to the tank, a pressure of 2-3 kg / cm² was created in it, which ensured a range of jet discharge of up to 30 m from the water jet. For the short duration of the operation of such a machine, firefighters managed to deploy and put into operation the main equipment  . However, after using the gas supply, such a car turned out to be useless and could not use the power of its own engine to participate in putting out the fire  . Currently, there is a first-aid vehicle APP-1.8-10 (Valdai-33104) -87ВР, in which water is supplied by displacing it from the tank with compressed air  .
In the period 1926-1932 in Russia, the systematic production of fire engine pumps began. The first such car was the AMO-F-15 car pump. The carrying capacity of the chassis is 1.5 tons, engine power is 30 kW. The rotary pump could supply 720–940 l / min of water. Her stock on the car was 350 liters, fire (combat) calculation consisted of 8 people  .
The first fire truck in Russia, designed to illuminate the place of extinguishing a night fire, was made by employees of the Leningrad State Fire Service in 1929 . A distribution gearbox from a fire engine pump, an electric generator with a power of 5 kW with a voltage of 127 V, a step-down transformer for supplying projection lamps by 12 V were installed on the chassis of a Y3 truck. A searchlight and various tools were loaded into the body. It was possible to connect a transformer to the nearest electrical substation . In the future, a searchlight car was made on the basis of the ZIS-8 bus . The salon was divided into three compartments. An electric generator was installed in the rear, six floodlights with a power of 500 W each were fixed on the partition. On average, 12 floodlights with a power of 250 W and two of 1000 W each were placed. Eight coils of the electric cable 50 meters long each were placed in boxes suspended from the steps of the machine. In the front compartment was a lighting control panel and combat clothing of firefighters  .
Major fire trucks
The main fire engines are designed to deliver personnel to the place of call, extinguish fires and carry out emergency rescue operations with the help of fire extinguishing substances and fire equipment taken to them, as well as to supply fire extinguishing substances to the place of fire from other sources.
Basic general-purpose PAs are designed to extinguish fires in cities and other settlements.
The main general use PAs include:
- Fire tankers (ATs) : A fire truck equipped with a fire pump, tanks for storing liquid fire extinguishing substances and means of their supply and intended for delivery of personnel, fire-technical weapons and equipment to the place of fire, extinguishing and rescue operations .
- Pump-hose fire engines (AHR) : A fire truck equipped with a pump, a set of fire hoses and designed to deliver personnel, fire-technical weapons, equipment and extinguishing actions to the place of fire (accident).
- Firefighting vehicles of first aid (APT): A fire truck on a lightweight chassis equipped with a pumping unit, tanks for liquid fire extinguishing substances and intended for delivery of personnel, fire-technical weapons and equipment to the place of fire (accident), carrying out fire fighting operations in initial stage and priority emergency rescue operations.
- Fire truck with a high-pressure pump (AED): A fire truck equipped with a high-pressure fire pump, tanks for liquid fire extinguishing substances, a set of fire-technical weapons and designed to carry out fire fighting in high-rise buildings and structures.
- Fire-rescue vehicles (APS, PSA): A fire truck equipped with a fire pump, containers for storing liquid fire extinguishing substances and means for their supply, a generator, an expanded set of fire-technical weapons and intended for the delivery of personnel, fire-technical weapons and equipment to place of fire (accident), extinguishing and rescue operations.
The main PA of the intended use designed to extinguish fires at oil depots, enterprises of the wood processing, chemical, petrochemical industries, at airports and at other special facilities. The following are commonly referred to as targeted use PA:
- Firefighting aerodrome vehicles (AA): A firefighting vehicle equipped with extinguishing means and special fire-technical weapons for extinguishing fires and conducting emergency rescue operations at airports by specialized fire departments.
- Powder Extinguishing Firefighting Vehicles (AP) : A fire engine equipped with a container for storing fire extinguishing powder, gas cylinders or a compressor unit, fire monitors and hand barrels and designed to deliver personnel, fire-technical weapons and equipment to the fire site and carry out fire fighting fire.
- Foam extinguishing fire fighting vehicles (APT): A fire truck equipped with one or more containers for storing a blowing agent, a fire pump with piping and communications for dispensing a blowing agent and designed to deliver personnel, fire fighting equipment and carrying out actions at petrochemical enterprises industry and storage areas for petroleum products.
- Combined fire fighting vehicles (ACT): A fire engine equipped with a pump, containers for storing fire extinguishing substances and means of their supply and designed to deliver personnel, combined fire extinguishing means and fire-fighting equipment to the fire site for simultaneous or sequential supply of fire extinguishing agents of various properties substances and carrying out actions at industrial enterprises, chemical, petrochemical and gas industry facilities, transport.
- Gas fire extinguishing vehicles (AGT): A fire engine equipped with vessels for storing compressed or liquefied gases, devices for their supply and intended for delivery of personnel, fire-technical weapons and equipment to the fire site and carrying out fire-fighting measures.
- Fire-fighting vehicles of gas-water extinguishing (AGVT): A fire-fighting vehicle equipped with a turbojet engine, a gas and water jet supply system and designed to deliver personnel, fire-technical weapons, equipment and carrying out actions to extinguish oil and gas fountains to the place of a fire (accident), fires at technological installations of oil refineries and chemical enterprises and their cooling.
- Fire pumping stations (PNS) : A fire truck equipped with a fire pump and designed to supply water through the main fire hoses directly to portable fire monitors or to fire engines with subsequent water supply to the fire and to create a reserve water supply near the site of a major fire.
- Fire foam lifts (ППП): A fire truck equipped with a stationary mechanized rotary articulated boom or telescopic boom with foam generators and designed to deliver personnel, fire-technical weapons and equipment to the fire place and to carry out fire fighting with foam at height.
Special fire trucks
Fire-rescue vehicle based on the Gazelle
Car smoke protection service
Special fire trucks are designed to perform emergency rescue operations related to fighting fires . They began to be developed from the beginning of the 20th century , in parallel with the creation of the main types of fire engines. In Russia, from 1993 to 2005, more than 50 models of new special fire trucks were mastered  .
Special fire trucks include:
- car diagnostics fire fighting equipment (ADPT);
- fire engine vehicle (AOPT);
- fire engine laboratory (ALP);
- fire ladder (AL) ;
- fire compressor station (PKS);
- fire rescue vehicle (ASA);
- fire engine gas protection service (AG);
- smoke exhaust fire truck (HELL);
- communication vehicle prevention and repair fire engine (APRSS);
- communication and lighting fire truck (ASO);
- fire truck technical service (ATS);
- fire engine-base GDZS (ABG);
- fire-fighting water-proof vehicle (AVZ);
- fire cranked car lift (AKP) ;
- firefighting vehicle (AOS);
- fire trailer (PP);
- hose fire truck (AR) ;
- fire headquarters vehicle (ASH). [ten]
- Combined Fire Pump
- Fire Pump Vacuum Apparatus
- Fire truck // Fire safety. Encyclopedia. —M.: FGU VNIIPO, 2007
- Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation of August 30, 2007 N 548 On approval of requirements for vehicles used to carry out urgent actions to protect the life and health of citizens, and special operational and service vehicles of the penal system for transporting persons in custody (as amended) December 18, 2018)
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- Special fire trucks // Fire safety. Encyclopedia. - M .: FGU VNIIPO, 2007.