al-Malik al-Muzaffar Sayf id-Din Kutuz ( Arabic. الملك المظفر سيف الدين قطز ;? - October 24, 1260 ) - the Mameluke Sultan of Egypt (1259-1260) from the genus of Khorezmshahs-Anushteginids.  .
|الملك المظفر سيف الدين قطز|
|Death||October 24, 1260 |
The following reports on the origin of Kutuz Makrizi : “They say that his name was Mahmoud ibn Mamdud, that his mother was the sister of the Sultan Jalal ud-Din Khorezmshah , and his father was the uncle on the father of the Sultan Jalal ud-Din. Kutuz was captured by the Tatars , who sold him in Damascus , from where he was transported to Cairo ”  .
Kutuz, the senior emir of Mu'izzi , Mamluks al-Mu'izza Aybek , after the latter came to power, took over as governor of the Egyptian Sultanate ( Naib al-Saltan Misr ). In January 1254, he took a direct part in the assassination organized by the Cairo Citadel of the leader of the Mamluk- Bahrite emir Faris al-Din Aktay , the rival of the Sultan. Many fringes, including Baybars , fearing for their lives, fled from Cairo. Twice (1257, 1258) they attacked Egypt, but were repelled by Kutuz; he captured the Bahra leaders captive.
“At present, Diarbekr , Diyarrabi'a and Syria are full of crying, and from Baghdad to Rum, the regions and lands are devastated, not cultivated and not sown. If we do not get ahead of [the Mongols] and do not rise to repulse them, then Misr will soon be devastated, like other countries. With these people who are encroaching on our country, one of three things must be chosen: either reconciliation, or enmity, or to leave their homeland. Moving to another country is difficult, because only Maghrib can be our residence, and between [him and us] a fierce desert and a long distance ... My opinion is that, let's turn to war together. If we gain victory, this will be exactly what we are striving for, and not how the people would not have reproached us. ”
Jami at-tawarih 
After the death of Aybek himself, the throne was taken by his 15-year-old son al-Mansur Ali (March 1257 ), but, in fact, power was shared between Kutuz, Sanjar al-Halabi , the Atabek of the young Sultan, and Sanjar al-Gatmi, the leader of the remaining in Egypt fringes. Kutuz was able to secure the conclusion of his main opponent, Sanjar al-Halabi, and took the post of commander in chief of the army ( atabeg al-asakir ), concentrating in his hands the sole authority. Upon learning of the Mongol invasion of Syria , Kutuz waited until his most dangerous opponents from the Salih fractions and Mu'izzy left Cairo, removed Al-Mansur Ali and took the throne under the title al-Malik al-Muzaffar ("all-conquering king") ( November 12, 1259 of the year). The legitimacy of this usurpation was justified by the fact that al-Mansur Ali is too young to become the leader of the jihad that should start against the Mongols. Perhaps Kutuzu was ideologically profitable to declare his descent from the Khorezmshahs, so he could act as an avenger for the dynasty that was defeated by the Mongols.
Khulag’s troops took Aleppo on January 25, 1260, but Ayyubid al-Nasir Yusuf , who was in Damascus , was in no hurry to help the city. He could not agree with Kutuz on joint actions against the enemy. Beybars, who was in the service of al-Nasir, left him and, together with a large group of Kurds, shahrazuri, retreated to Palestine , where he camped near Gaza . From here he began negotiations with the former enemy Kutuz on the receipt of Aman (security guarantee) in case of return to Egypt. Hulagu, meanwhile, demanded surrender from Kutuz, to which the Egyptian sultan responded by executing the Mongolian ambassadors.
The Egyptian embassy traveled to Acre to conclude an alliance against the Mongols. The Franks decided to remain neutral , but gave permission for the passage of the Mamluk troops along the coastal strip of the Kingdom of Jerusalem . On July 15, 1260, the Mamluks under the command of Kutuz and Beibars left Cairo and in August they camped in the vicinity of Acre, where they rested and replenished supplies. On September 3, the Mamluks defeated Kitbuki’s army at the Battle of Ain Jalut . Syria came under the control of the Mamluks and Kutuz appointed his governors to the cities. He placed Sanjar al-Halabi as the ruler of Damascus, and the Aleppo Al-Din Ali, the son of the Mosul Atabek Badr id-Din Lu'lu , promised Aleppo to the Beybars .
On the way back to Egypt, the troops camped near Gaza. A group of emirs, among whom were Bahri (Baybars and Balaban ar-Rashidi), and mu'izzy , formed a conspiracy. On October 24, 1260, during a hunt, Beibars approached Kutuz and asked for a gift of a Turkic (Kipchak) girl captured by the Mongols, who they were taken in a wagon train and which was repelled by the Mamluks. Having received consent, he kissed the sultan's hand. According to this symbol, the Mamluks surrounded him and killed him. Although, according to the court chronicler Abd al-Zahir, Baybars dealt a fatal blow, most likely this was done by the little-known Mamluk Anas al-Silahdar. Baybars I was chosen as the new sultan
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