"Pushkin Nature Reserve" - the museum-reserve of A. S. Pushkin "Mikhailovsky" in the Pushkin district of the Pskov region of the Russian Federation . An object of cultural heritage of the peoples of the Russian Federation. [one]
Museum Exposition Manor House
|Location||Pskov region |
Full name - “State Memorial Historical-Literary and Natural Landscape Museum-Reserve of A. S. Pushkin“ Mikhailovsky “”.
The total area of the reserve is 9 713 hectares.
Nature Reserve Objects
- Grave of A. S. Pushkin and the Hannibal-Pushkin necropolis in the Svyatogorsky Assumption Monastery
- The estates " Mikhailovsky ", " Trigorskoe ", " Petrovsky " and their memorial parks
- ancient settlements Velje , Voronich , Vrev , Savkino ( Savkina Gorka )
- Lakes: Beloguli , Velho , Kuchane , Malenets, Black
- Floodplain meadows of the Soroti River
- The Pushkin Village Museum, the Mill Museum in the Bugrovo Village and the Center for Creative Museum Programs in the Bugrovo Village
- The Scientific and Cultural Center of the Pushkin Reserve in the village of Pushkin Hills , (NCC)
- The estates of the poet’s relatives, friends and neighbors - Voskresenskoye, Golubovo, Deriglazovo, Lysaya Gora
- The historical part of the merchant village of Velje , XIV-XX centuries.
About the stay of A. S. Pushkin in Mikhailovsky
For the first time, the young poet visited here in the summer of 1817, and, as he himself wrote in one of his autobiographies, he was fascinated by “rural life, a Russian bathhouse, strawberries, etc., but I did not like it all for long”  .
The next time Pushkin visited Mikhailovskoye in 1819 .
From August 1824 to September 1826, Pushkin lived here in exile.
In 1824, a letter in Pushkin was opened by police in Moscow, where he wrote about his enthusiasm for “atheistic teachings”. This was the reason for the poet's resignation on July 8, 1824 from service  . He was exiled to his mother’s estate, and spent two years there - this is Pushkin’s longest stay in Mikhailovsky.
Soon after Pushkin’s arrival in Mikhailovskoye, he had a big quarrel with his father, who actually agreed to tacit surveillance of his own son. In late autumn, all Pushkin’s relatives left Mikhailovsky  .
Contrary to the fears of friends, solitude in the village did not become destructive for Pushkin. Despite the difficult experiences, the first Mikhailovsky autumn was fruitful for the poet, he read a lot, thought, worked  . Pushkin often visited the neighbor on the estate P. A. Osipov in Trigorsky and used her library  (Osipova's father, a freemason, associate of N. I. Novikov , left a large collection of books). From Mikhail's exile to the end of his life, he was connected with friendly relations with Osipova and members of her large family. In Trigorsky in 1826, Pushkin met with Yazykov , whose poems had been known to him since 1824.
Pushkin completes the poems “A Conversation of a Book Seller with a Poet ” begun in Odessa, where he formulates his professional credo, “ To the Sea ” - a lyrical reflection on the fate of a person of the Napoleon and Byron era, on the brutal power of historical circumstances over a person, the poem “ Gypsies ” ( 1827 ), continues to write a novel in verse. In the autumn of 1824, he resumes work on autobiographical notes left at the very beginning in Chisinau, and ponders the plot of the folk drama “ Boris Godunov ” (finished on November 7 (19), 1825 , published in 1831 ), writes the comic poem “ Count Nulin ” . In total, about a hundred works were created in the Mikhailovsky poet.
In 1825, she met in Osipova’s niece, Anna Kern [K 1] , in Trigorsk, who is considered to be dedicated to the poem “ I Remember a Wonderful Moment ...”.
A month after the end of the exile, in November-December 1826 , he returned "free to an abandoned prison" and spent about a month in Mikhailovsky.
The following years, the poet periodically came here to take a break from city life and write freely. So, in 1827, Pushkin began the novel "Arap of Peter the Great"  .
In 1835, in Mikhailovsky, Pushkin continued to work on "Scenes from the Knights' Times", "Egyptian Nights", and created the poem "I visited again."
In the spring of 1836, after a serious illness, the mother of the poet Nadezhda Osipovna died. Pushkin endured this loss heavily. The circumstances were such that he was the only one from the whole family who accompanied the body of Nadezhda Osipovna to the burial place in the Holy Mountains . In April 1836, the last visit of A. S. Pushkin to Mikhailovskoye was; from this time on, this estate passed into the ownership of the poet.
On the morning of February 6, 1837, he himself was buried in the Svyatogorsky monastery . After death, the estate in Mikhailovsky began to belong to his children.
In 1899, on the centenary of the birth of A.S. Pushkin, Mikhailovskoye was bought from the heirs of the poet in state ownership. In 1911, a colony for elderly writers and a museum in memory of A. S. Pushkin were opened in the estate.
In February 1918, the estates Mikhailovskoye, Trigorskoye, Petrovskoye were looted and burned.
March 17, 1922 , on the basis of a decision of the Council of People's Commissars, the estates Mikhailovskoye, Trigorskoye and the grave of A.S. Pushkin in the Svyatogorsky monastery were declared protected.
In 1936, the Voronich settlement , Savkina Gorka , Petrovskoye estate and the entire Svyatogorsky monastery were included in the museum-reserve. By 1937 (the centenary of the death of A.S. Pushkin ), the poet's house-museum in Mikhailovsky was restored, as well as some other buildings.
During the Great Patriotic War, the reserve was badly damaged, the buildings of the estates, the buildings of the Svyatogorsky monastery were destroyed, the grave of Pushkin was damaged, the ensembles of the manor parks were badly damaged.
After the war, the restoration of the museum's reserves began. A major role in the restoration of the reserve was played by its director (1945-1989) S. S. Geychenko . By 1949, the Mikhailovskoye and Svyatogorsky monastery were restored, by 1962 - the estate of the friends of the poet Trigorskoye , by 1977 - the estate of the ancestors of Pushkin Hannibalov, Petrovsky.
In 1992, the Svyatogorsky monastery was transferred to the Russian Orthodox Church.
In 1995, in addition to memorial historical and literary functions, the reserve began to perform natural landscape.
Since 1995, by the decree of the President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin , the A.S. Pushkin Museum-Reserve “Mikhailovskoye” has been included in the collection of especially valuable cultural heritage sites of the peoples of the Russian Federation .
Since 2013, by order of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 714-r dated April 30, 2013, the State Museum-Reserve of A. Pushkin “Mikhailovskoye” received the status “A Landmark connected with the life and work of A. S. Pushkin in the village of Mikhailovsky and his surroundings in the Pushkin region of the Pskov region. "
Memorable dates and annual events
- March 17 - Foundation Day of the Pushkin Nature Reserve
- May 18 - International Museum Day
- February 10 - Memorial Day of A.S. Pushkin
- June 6 - Birthday of A. S. Pushkin (celebrated on the first Sunday of June), Pushkin Day of Russia, Russian Language Day
- August 21 - Day of Pushkin's arrival in the Mikhailovsky link
- August 2 - Memorial Day for employees of the Pushkin Nature Reserve
- He met Kern Pushkin in 1820 in St. Petersburg in the Olenins' salon.
- Information about the museum-reserve of A. S. Pushkin "Mikhailovsky" . pushkin.ellink.ru. Date of treatment February 9, 2019.
- Bondi S. M. The Birth of Realism in Pushkin's Works // About Pushkin: Articles and Studies. - M .: Fiction, 1978. - S. 93.
- Lotman, 1995 , p. 95.
- Lotman, 1995 , p. 96.
- Vatsuro V.E. , Gillelson M.I. , Jesuitova R.V., Levkovich Y. L. Comments // Pushkin in the memoirs of contemporaries: in 2 volumes . - 3rd ed., Ext. - SPb. : Academic project, 1998. - T. 1. - S. 439-524. - 524 s.
- From the memoirs of Alexei Nikolaevich Wolfe
- Lotman Yu.M. Pushkin. - SPb. : Art-St. Petersburg, 1995 .-- 847 p.