The Nizhny Novgorod State Order of the Red Banner of Labor the Academic Drama Theater named after M. Gorky is one of the oldest Russian theaters. The history of the creation of the theater dates back to 1798 , when Prince N. G. Shakhovskoy opened a public theater in Nizhny Novgorod  . On February 7, the first public performance based on the comedy by D. I. Fonvizin, “ Choosing a Governor, ” took place. 
|Nizhny Novgorod State Academic Drama Theater named after M. Gorky|
Theater building (2014)
|Location||Russia , Nizhny Novgorod|
|Address||st. Bolshaya Pokrovskaya , 13 |
|Architectural style||Bozar (academic eclecticism )|
|Status||Protected by the state|
| An object of cultural heritage of the peoples of the Russian Federation of federal significance. Reg. No. 521410083080006 ( EGROKN ). Object No. 5210040000 (Wikigid database)|
|Director||Kainov, Boris Petrovich|
The theater bore the following names:
- Since 1798 - Nizhny Novgorod Theater of Prince Shakhovsky (City and Fair)
- Since 1824 - Nizhny Novgorod Theater
- Since 1896 - Nikolaev Nizhny Novgorod Drama Theater
- Since 1918 - Nizhny Novgorod Soviet City Theater
- Since 1923 - 1st State Theater
- Since 1926 - Nizhny Novgorod State Theater
- Since 1932 - First Gorky Drama Theater
- Since 1934 - Gorky Regional Drama Theater
- Since 1937 - Gorky Regional Drama Theater
- Since 1940 - Gorky State Drama Theater
- Since 1944 - Gorky State Drama Theater named after M. Gorky
- Since 1949 - Gorky State Order of the Red Banner of Labor Drama Theater named after M. Gorky
- Since 1968 - Gorky State Order of the Red Banner of Labor Academic Drama Theater named after M. Gorky
- Since 1990 - Nizhny Novgorod State Order of the Red Banner of Labor Academic Drama Theater named after M. Gorky
19th Century History
The first troupe of the serf theater consisted of more than one hundred serf actors of the landowner Ardatovsky Uyezd, Prince Nikolai Grigoryevich Shakhovsky . One of the city houses of the prince on the corner of Bolshaya and Malaya Pechersky streets was rebuilt as a theater (now there is a river school on this site). It had 27 beds, 50 seats, a stall for 100 people and an upper gallery for 200 people. A small square in front of the building - one of two in the city, paved with stone - became known as the Theater. The repertoire of the theater did not differ from the capital's and included, in addition to comedies and tragedies, operas and ballets. A. S. Gatsissky wrote:
“It was a gloomy, clumsy building, with the smell of lamp oil, with thick, whitewashed, whitewashed logs connecting the stall-shaped lodges, supporting the roof, with a blackened door backstage from soiling and soot from the lamps ... On both sides of the curtain there were two huge and greasy holes, in which during the intermission someone’s eyes were constantly visible, even sometimes with a nose, accompanied by two fingers that made observations easier, the curly head of the worker, who had the duty to raise the front curtain and the patriarch, was visible sometimes leaning out from behind a jamb with lyres this curly head ... ".
With the death of the prince in 1824, the theater's affairs went worse, since the heirs of Shakhovsky did not like the stage business. In 1827, two wealthy theatergoers Rasputin and Klimov bought a theater, including scenery and a troupe, for 100 thousand rubles. The brilliant period in the history of the theater continued until 1838, when a series of changes in the owners of the theater began. The quality of the game fell, the losses from the maintenance of the theater grew. In 1853, the theater burned down.
A place for a new theater was planned on Verkhne-Volzhskaya Embankment back in 1846, but Nicholas I determined a place for Theater Square on Bolshaya Pokrovskaya . The city’s lack of funds for the purchase of land from private owners and construction constantly pushed back the implementation of the project.
On December 1, 1855, the theater reopened on Blagoveshchenskaya Square ( Minin and Pozharsky ) in a house built by Pyotr Yegorovich Bugrov (on the site of the modern Labor House). Bugrov intended to use the building as a tenement house , but the great lover of the theater, the governor, Prince M. A. Urusov, asked to turn it over to the theater. The affairs of the theater went badly, entrepreneurs changed, rent was paid defectively, and Alexander Bugrov's son demanded that the theater be evicted. In 1862, the building was bought out by the provincial leader A. A. Turchaninov, and after his death in 1863 was again leased to the theater.
In 1894, on the eve of the All-Russian Industrial and Art Exhibition, the City Duma was going to repair the theater building, which had suffered from several fires. But the vowel of the Duma Nikolai Alexandrovich Bugrov , who did not want to see the theater in the house built by his grandfather, for reasons of Old Believer piety , offered 200 thousand rubles for the construction of a new building on Bolshaya Pokrovskaya . The Duma added 50 thousand from itself, asked for a subsidy in the government, and two years later a new theater appeared. The author of the project was the chief architect of the imperial theaters, Academician V.A. Schreter , and the work was led by a young Nizhny Novgorod architect P.P. Malinovsky . The theater opened on the day of the coronation of their imperial majesties on May 15, 1896 with a ceremonial performance - the opera by M. I. Glinka “ Life for the Tsar ” with the participation of the young F. I. Chaliapin .
The building is designed in the style of Bozar (academic eclecticism ) of the direction of historicism with an eye to the magnificent architecture of the theater in Paris ( Grand Opera ) by architect Charles Garnier  .
At the request of the city duma "The highest permission to assign the name" Nikolaevsky "to the newly built Nizhny Novgorod city theater, in grateful memory of the blessed memory in the Bose of the resting Emperor Nicholas I, who personally outlined the place for the building in the city plan , the theater received the name Nikolaevsky.
On September 1, 1896, the drama troupe, led by N. I. Sobolshchikov-Samarin , opened the new season with the drama by A. I. Sumbatov-Yuzhin, "The leaves rustle."
Sobolshchikov-Samarin wrote about the new theater:
“I was delighted with the new building. Everything about him made me happy. It seemed to me that in this beautiful building, bathed in electric light, I will forget the thorny path of a provincial actor, that all my bright dreams of a real art theater will come true here. Every time I entered the new theater, I was in awe and I found myself walking along its corridors on tiptoe, reverently. ”
Since 1798, the Nizhny Novgorod Theater was headed by:
- 1798-1824 Prince N. G. Shakhovskoy
- 1824-1827 heirs of the prince
- 1827-1839 entrepreneurs I. A. Rasputin and Klimov
- 1847-1877 F.K. Smolkov (gained fame for his incredible stinginess)
- 1877-1881 different entrepreneurs
- 1881-1891 D.A. Belsky
On the stage of the theater, the great Russian actors L.P. Nikulin-Kositskaya , P.A. Strepetova , A.P. Lensky began their artistic activity. The legendary M. S. Schepkin , M. N. Ermolova , V. F. Komissarzhevskaya , V. N. Davydov , K. S. Stanislavsky and others shone on its stage.
20th Century History
The outstanding Russian actor, director and entrepreneur N.I. Sobolshchikov-Samarin , worked on the Nizhny Novgorod stage in 1892-99 and from 1924 to 1945 (until the end of his life). Nikolai Ivanovich developed the Stanislavsky system and at the same time the “left theater”. Particularly successful were his productions of the Gorky drama. Under him, the basic creative principles of the theater were determined, an interesting repertoire was formed, an acting troupe was formed which included remarkable artists: A. N. Samarina , N. A. Levkoev , T. P. Rozhdestvenskaya , V. I. Razumov , M. K. Vysotsky , V. P. Golodkova , P. D. Muromtsev , P. B. Yudin, E. N. Agurov , M. M Belousov , V. F. Vasiliev , A. N. Goryanskaya, A. A. Dubensky , O D. Kashutin, M. A. Prokopovich, V. A. Sokolovsky , S. V. Yurenev and others.
From 1928 to 1945, 191 new performances were staged, of which Soviet plays comprised 102 plays, Russian classics - 62 plays, West European classics - 22, and plays by contemporary foreign authors - 5 plays.
In 1942-1956, the artistic direction of the theater was led by a talented actor and director N. A. Pokrovsky . This bright period in the life of the creative team was marked mainly by the deep productions of Gorky drama. One of Pokrovsky’s best performances was Barbarians. From 1946 to 1956, 95 premieres were given, of which 51 were based on Soviet plays.
In 1948, the Nizhny Novgorod State Drama Theater was named after Maxim Gorky .
In 1949, in connection with the 150th anniversary of its founding, the theater was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor .
In 1956-1962, the main director of the theater was a student and follower of the outstanding director A. Ya. Tairov , People's Artist of the RSFSR , Stalin Prize laureate M. A. Gersht . Gerscht combined in his work vivid entertainment, scale and sharpness of form with psychological depth and philosophical penetration into the dramaturgy. Under him, the troupe was replenished with many widely known artists, such as L. S. Drozdova , V. V. Vikhrov , N. G. Voloshin , V. Ya. Dvorzhetsky , V. Ya. Samoilov , V. I. Kuznetsov.
In 1968, the play “ At the Bottom ” by M. Gorky and three of its creators - director B. D. Voronov, artist V. Ya. Gerasimenko, People's Artist of the RSFSR N. A. Levkoev, performer of the role of Luke, were awarded the K RSFSR State Prize S. Stanislavsky.
In 1968, the leading theater actress A.N. Samarina was awarded the honorary title of People's Artist of the USSR for outstanding creative achievements. Many of the theater’s creative workers have been awarded the honorary titles of Russia, and are also laureates of the Nizhny Novgorod Prize.
In 1968, the theater was awarded the title of “academic” - the second of the peripheral theaters of Russia.
In 1993, at the Russian Theater Festival named after M. Gorky, the play “Zykovs” based on the play by M. Gorky received the Grand Prize for best directing (Honored Artist of the Russian Federation G. G. Mikhailov)
The Nizhny Novgorod Drama Theater is the only one in the country, on the stage of which, starting in 1901, all of Gorky’s plays and individual dramatizations of his prose were staged. “The glory of the Nizhny Novgorod Theater has long been determined by the depth of character development, the accuracy of psychological motivation, the juicy acting humor ... The traditions of the theater developed under the direct influence of the writer’s dramaturgy, whose name he bears,” wrote the Theater magazine in 1965.
The main directors of the theater
- 1893-1899 N. I. Sobolshchikov-Samarin
- 1899-1900 S. A. Korsikov-Andreev
- 1900-1902 K. N. Nezlobin
- 1902-1908 D.I. Basmanov
- 1908-1910 M.E. Evgeniev
- 1911-1912 P.P. Struisky
- 1912-1913 I.V. Lozanovsky
- 1913-1916 A. A. Sumarokov
- 1916-1918 I.A. Rostovtsev
- 1918-1922 directing board
- 1922-1924 S. Ya. Stupetskiy
- 1924-1936 N. I. Sobolshchikov-Samarin (from 1936 to 1945 - artistic consultant)
- 1936-1940 E. A. Brill (Honored Artist of the Russian Federation)
- 1940-1942 V.Z. Mass
- 1942-1956 N. A. Pokrovsky (People's Artist of the Russian Federation)
- 1956-1962 M. A. Gersht (Honored Artist of the Russian Federation)
- 1962-1971 B. D. Voronov (Honored Artist of the Russian Federation)
- 1971-1975 K. M. Dubinin
- 1975-1979 G.V. Menshenin (Honored Artist of the Russian Federation)
- 1979-1985 A.A. Koshelev
- 1985-1988 O. I. Dzhangisherashvili (Honored Artist of the Russian Federation)
- 1988-1991 E. D. Tabachnikov (Honored Artist of the Russian Federation)
- 2013—2014 V. I. Danziger 
- Razumov, Vasily Ivanovich (1932-1968), People's Artist of the RSFSR
- Sokolovsky, Vladislav Alexandrovich (1935-1964), People's Artist of the RSFSR
- Goryanskaya, Augusta Nikolaevna (1935-1971), Honored Artist of the RSFSR
- Khlibko, Nikolai Selivestrovich - Honored Artist of the RSFSR
- Vashurina, Raisa Mikhailovna - People's Artist of the RSFSR
- Vikhrov, Vladimir Valentinovich (1960-2003) (director of the theater from 1971 to 1973 and from 1988 to 2002)
- Voloshin, Nikolai G. (1956-1993) - People's Artist of the RSFSR
- Alasheev, Alexander Mikhailovich - Honored Artist of the RSFSR
- Dvorzhetsky, Vaclav Janovich (1958-1989)
- Lebsky, Vitaly Alexandrovich
- Samarina, Antonina Nikolaevna , People's Artist of the USSR 
- Taza, Alexander Nikolaevich (1985-1988), Honored Artist of the Russian Federation
- Tretyakov, Georgy Mikhailovich
- Zimin, Mikhail Nikolaevich
- Khityaeva, Lyudmila Ivanovna (1952-1962)
- Drozdova, Lilia Stepanovna (since 1957), People's Artist of the RSFSR
- Strizhova, Anna Nikolaevna (1923-1929), People's Artist of the RSFSR
- Mikhail Vysotsky (1934-1937), People's Artist of the Ukrainian SSR
The theater is headed
- Director: B. P. Kainov - Honored Worker of Culture of the Russian Federation, awarded with the badge of the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation "For achievements in culture", Laureate of the Prize of the city of Nizhny Novgorod.
Resumed touring activities:
- 2006 - Samara
- 2007 - Vologda
- 2008 - Sarov
- 2009 - Tula
- 2011 - Yoshkar-Ola Mari El Republic
- 2012 - Moscow (on the stage of the Theater of the Taganka Actors Actors)
- 2013 - Gomel, Republic of Belarus
The theater successfully takes part in international and all-Russian theater festivals and forums.
- 1993 , the All-Russian Theater Festival in Nizhny Novgorod - the play "Zykovs" (director - Honored Artist of the Russian Federation G. G. Mikhailov) was awarded the Grand Prix for best directing. The performer of the role of Sophia, Honored Artist of the RSFSR T. Yu. Kirillova received the prize "For Best Actress".
- 2002 , the festival "The Oldest Theaters of Russia" in Kaluga - the performance "Forest" by A. N. Ostrovsky (director - Honored Artist of the Russian Federation V. F. Bogomazov). The festival’s diplomas were awarded to People's Artist of the Russian Federation V.V. Nikitin (role of Neschastlivtsev) for their loyalty to the traditions of the Russian realistic theater and Honored Artist of the Russian Federation A.V. Murisep (role of Milonov) for best performance of the supporting role.
- 2004 , V International Volkov Festival in Yaroslavl - performance "Tartuffe, or a trickster" J.-B. Moliere (director - People’s Artist of the Russian Federation, State Prize Laureate A. Ivanov) received the Crystal Bell prize
- 2004 , II International Theater Forum "Golden Knight" in Moscow - the same performance received a diploma "For the best scenography" (artist E. M. Voronina).
- 2006 , IV International Festival "Slavic Theater Meetings" in Bryansk - a performance based on the play by Peter Gladilin "An Angel Out of the Fog" was shown
- 2008 , III All-Russian Theater Festival "The Oldest Theaters of Russia" in Kaluga - the same performance participated.
- 2008 , II Interregional Theater Festival named after N. Kh. Rybakov, Tambov - the performance “For every sage is quite simple” (director - V. M. Portnov) was presented for the performance: Laureate’s diploma “For the best cast”, G. Demurov - title “Actor of Russia” and the prize of N. Kh. Rybakov, V. Ometov - “Hope of the Union” prize and diploma of the STD RF Laureate.
- 2008 - Theater Festival "At the Golden Gate", Vladimir Performance "For every sage is quite simple."
- 2008 - IX International Theater Festival. F. Volkova in Yaroslavl. The play "Marriage". S. V. Blokhin - The Critics Council of the IX International Volkovsky Festival noted the best acting with diplomas and prizes: Honored Artist of the Russian Federation Sergey V. Blokhin for the role of Scrambled Eggs in the play “Marriage” by N. Gogol
- 2009 - XVII International Festival "Slavic Theater Meetings" Bryansk. The play “Marriage” by N. Gogol. Laureate diploma "Best Actor" - Honored Artist of the Russian Federation Blokhin, Sergey Valerievich for the role of Ovary
Prizes of Nizhny Novgorod, awarded by the city administration for works of great scientific, economic or social importance, were awarded
- “Uncle Vanya” A. Chekhov (director V. Sarkisov, 2011)
- “Romeo and Juliet” by W. Shakespeare (director V. F. Bogomazov, 1994),
- “The Adventures of Mr. Ch.” M. Bulgakov based on the poem by N. Gogol “Dead Souls” (director L. S. Belyavsky, 2002)
- M.P. Alasheeva, V.V. Nikitin, G.S. Demurov, O.V. Beregova, S. V. Blokhin, T. Yu. Kirillova, Yu. M. Kotov, E. A. Surodeykina.
- B.P. Kainov
The new leadership, remaining faithful to the classics, has embarked on a renewal of the repertoire; a program is underway to return Gorky drama to the stage of the theater.
The practice of public discussions of the prime ministers is being revived.
Modern Theater Troupe
- Alasheeva M.P. , People's Artist of Russia (1999) 
- G. Demurov , People's Artist of Russia (1996) 
- Nikitin V.V. , People's Artist of the RSFSR (1986) 
- Beregova O. V. Honored Artist of the RSFSR
- Blokhin S.V. Honored Artist of the Russian Federation
- Bozhko R. L. , Honored Artist of the RSFSR
- Ignatiev N. D. , Honored Artist of the Russian Federation
- Kirillova T. Yu. Honored Artist of the RSFSR
- Kotov Yu. M. Honored Artist of the Russian Federation
- Murisep A.V. Honored Artist of the RSFSR
- Surodeykina E.A. Honored Artist of the RSFSR
- Alexander Borisovich Suchkov A. B. , Honored Artist of the Russian Federation 
- Firstov A.P. Honored Artis of the RSFSR
- Khorenyak A. I. Honored Artist of the Russian Federation
- Bagoley M.I.
- Blokhina V.V.
- Butermanova S.G.
- Bychkov I.N.
- Glazyrina A.N.
- Zhukova T. A.
- Zerin E.A.
- Kabailo S.E.
- Kabailo S.A.
- Kuznetsova N.M.
- Lapshov A.E.
- Melnikova M.V.
- Muranova Yu. G. 
- Ometov V.A.
- Pozharnitsky N. G.
- Prokhorov A.S.
- Smetanina E.A.
- Starzhinsky I.A.
- Suchkova A.A.
- Turkova E.V.
- Ushakov P.A.
- Filshin Yu. D.
- Fokova V.F.
- Chekulaeva E.S.
- Shtepanova L.V.
- Yurieva M.M.
Outstanding productions of past years
- 1927 - "Petty Bourgeois" by M. Gorky . Director N. I. Sobolshchikov-Samarin
- 1929 - The Fiery Bridge by Romashov
- 1929 - The Fury of Yanovsky
- 1930 - "Shot" by Bezymensky
- 1932 - The Fear of Afinogenov
- 1935 - Plato Krechet by A. E. Korneichuk
- 1936 - The Last, by M. Gorky . Director Lermin
- 1936 - "The death of the squadron" A. E. Korneichuk
- 1937 - "Zykovs" by M. Gorky . Director E. A. Brill
- 1942 - “Front” by A. E. Korneychuk
- 1943 - “Barbarians” by M. Gorky
- 1946 - “Summer Residents” by M. Gorky
- 1951 - "Egor Bulychov and others" by M. Gorky
- 1960 - “Irkutsk History” by A. N. Arbuzov
- “Where the rivers flow” A. Sosnina
- “ Everything Remains for People ” S. Alyoshina
- "Lost Son" R. Blauman
- “ Drummer ” by A. Salynsky
- "Nastasya Filippovna" by Nikolai Klimontovich according to F. M. Dostoevsky . Director Sergey Steblyuk 
- 2005 - Too Married Taxi Driver Ray Cooney . Director Leonid Chigin 
- 2005 - “An Angel Out of the Fog” by Peter Gladilin . Director Valery Sarkisov 
- 2006 - “Fake coin” by M. Gorky . Director: Rostislav Goryaev 
- 2006 - “ For every sage of rather simplicity ” by A. N. Ostrovsky . Director Vladimir Portnov 
- 2008 - “ The Marriage ” of N.V. Gogol . Director Valery Sarkisov 
- 2008 - “ Last Summer in Chulimsk ” by A. Vampilov . Director Alexander Kladko 
- 2008 - “ Uncle Vanya ” A.P. Chekhov. Director Valery Sarkisov
- 2009 - “Garnet Bracelet” by A. I. Kuprin - Director RF Alexey Pesegov.
- 2012 - The Cherry Orchard A.P. Chekhov. Director Valery Sarkisov
- 2013 - "Petty Bourgeois" A. M. Gorky. Director Vadim Danziger
- 2012 - The Imaginary Sick, dir. K. Nersisyan
- 2013 - “Twelfth Night”, K. Nersisyan
- Nizhny Novgorod Opera and Ballet Theater
- Bolshaya Pokrovskaya street
- Culture of Nizhny Novgorod
- Theatrical Encyclopedia. Ch. ed. P.A. Markov. T. 2 - M .: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1963 (pp. 93-95)
- Archived copy (inaccessible link) . Date of treatment April 25, 2008. Archived February 29, 2008.
- Khudin A.A. Eclecticism in architecture yesterday and today // Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering / prof. A. L. Gelfond. - Nizhny Novgorod.
- Vadim Danziger about his resignation from the post of chief director of the Nizhny Novgorod Drama Theater
- Archived copy (inaccessible link) . Date of treatment April 25, 2008. Archived May 20, 2007.
- Archived copy (inaccessible link) . Date of treatment April 25, 2008. Archived May 20, 2007.
- Archived copy (inaccessible link) . Date of treatment April 25, 2008. Archived May 20, 2007.
- Awarded by presidential decree No. 91 of January 25, 2008; Archived on June 29, 2009.
- Muranova Julia Gennadyevna - Nizhny Novgorod State Academic Drama Theater named after M. Gorky
- “See who came” omsknews.ru (inaccessible link)
- In the Nizhny Novgorod Drama Theater, the premieres of the plays “Too Married Taxi Driver” and “An Angel Came Out of the Fog” (inaccessible link) will be premiered . Date of treatment April 25, 2008. Archived July 14, 2014.
- Nizhny Novgorod Gorky Drama Theater is preparing for the premiere - at the theater, rehearsals of the play “Fake Coin” are in full swing
- Nizhny Novgorod Drama Theater will present the premiere of the comedy “For Every Wise Man Is Pretty Simplicity” (inaccessible link) . Date of treatment April 25, 2008. Archived July 14, 2014.
- The premiere of Gogol’s comedy “Marriage” directed by Valery Sarkisov will take place on April 3 at the Gorky Drama Theater in Nizhny Novgorod
- The last premiere of the season will take place in the Nizhny Novgorod Drama Theater on May 8
- Alekseeva A. N. Cultural construction of the Gorky region 1917-1957. Collection. - Gorky Book Publishing House, 1957.