Kavad II Shiruye ( 590 - 628 ) - the king of kings ( shahinshah ) of Iran , reigned for several months in 628 . From the Sassanid dynasty , the eldest son of Khosrov II Parviz . Kavad had the nickname Shiruye (“Lion”), Iranian historiographers often call him that very nickname.
|Kavad II Shiruye|
Coin Kawada II
|Predecessor||Khosrov II Parviz|
|Father||Khosrov II Parviz|
Coming to power
Ferdowsi considered Kavad the son of a Byzantine princess Maria, the daughter of Mauritius . According to legend, astrologers predicted Parviz that his eldest son would be the cause of unrest and disasters. Perhaps that is why Khosrov did not want to appoint him as heir to the authorities, and when Kavadu was twenty-three years old, he ordered him to be kept under arrest for some offenses. He decided to give the throne to his younger son Mardanshah from marriage with his beloved wife Shirin.
Shiruy was released by conspirators who rebelled against Khosrov II. Firdausi writes that the son did not want to take the life of his father, but Khosrow refused to acknowledge his deed, and then the commanders, who were unable to prevent the new shahinshah, killed Khosrov.  In general, Muslim historians, who drew information from Persian books and oral legends, present Kawad II as a limp and incompetent ruler, and as a man they are a frank rascal. "Cowardly and immature" (according to the characterization of Ferdowsi) Kavad first mutilated, and then killed all his brothers, up to twenty in number (according to different sources), including Mardanshah. True, according to an anonymous Syrian chronicle of the 7th century, the main initiator of the murder of Khosrov II Parviz and his children was Shamta, the son of a former official of the ousted king, the Christian Yazdin.  Theophanes the Byzantine wrote that Kavad II was the initiator of the execution of his father, and that for five days before his death, Khosrov was subjected to unheard-of harassment:
“Tightly bound his hands with chains, he put heavy glands on his legs and neck and plunged him into the house of darkness, which he had arranged in his youth and strengthened for keeping money; here they were tormenting him with hunger, giving meager bread and water. Syrois (that is, Shiruye) at the same time said: "Let him eat gold, which he collected in vain, for which he starved many and devastated the world"; he sent the satraps to curse him and spit on him; then he brought Merdasan (that is, Mardanshah), whom he wanted to marry, killed him in front of his eyes, also killed his other children in front of him, and sent all his enemies to curse him and spit him. Shirois, who continued these curses for five days, ordered him to be killed by arrows, and so, little by little, in torment, the tyrant let out his evil soul. ” 
Then, according to legend, Kavad II wanted to marry his father's widow, still beautiful Shirin. But she deceived him - she asked permission before the wedding to enter her husband in the tomb, as he allegedly left something for her, and there she took poison.
Armenian historians, on the contrary, praise Shiruya, for he, first, stopped the war with the Byzantines, and secondly, issued a decree on exemption of the population from taxes for a period of three years. The Nestorian author Chronicles of Seert said that the Shah professed Christianity and even wore a cross on his body, which of course is incredible. [four]
By the time Kavad II assumed the throne, Iran’s position was very difficult. The country was completely depleted by the many years of war with Byzantium , which the Persians lost. Forces to continue the struggle was not. Kavad II immediately sent an embassy to Heraclius , consisting mostly of Nestorian bishops, thus informing about the change of power and desire for peace. In response, Heraclius demanded, in addition to a huge contribution , the release of all prisoners, the return of the shrines seized in Jerusalem , the cession to him of all the lands seized by Father Kavad and the immediate withdrawal of the Persian garrisons and field armies from the entire occupied Byzantium territory. The conditions were accepted and the peace was concluded on April 3, 628 .
But if Heraclius made peace with the Persians, the Turks continued to smash the Transcaucasus . In spring, the combined Turkic-Khazar army took Tiflis . In retaliation for the insults with which the Georgians and the Persians awarded the Turks during the first siege, the kagan ordered the slaughter of all those whom the Turks were able to catch, and to torture the Georgian king and the Persian marzand blinded and skinned.
Death of Kawad II
Blurred a year earlier, the dams that protected the fields of Lower Mesopotamia, could not be repaired as a result of the devastation. Literally over the season, a significant part of the fertile lands here turned into swamps. Started famine and epidemic, which did not spare the king himself. He died in October of 628 from “abdominal disease” ( dysentery ), reigned no more than eight months.   However, it is possible that the cause of Kawad II’s death was poison. 
His death became a catalyst for riots and uprisings in Iran, which led to the weakening of the Sassanian power and, 23 years later, to a final fall.
- Muhammad al-Tabari . Stories of the prophets and kings. XXXVI
- Anonymous Syrian chronicle of the Sassanid time. § 16-17
- Theophanes the Confessor . Chronicle, under 618 AD
- Dashkov S. B. Kings of Kings - Sassanids. - p. 183-184.
- Anonymous Syrian chronicle of the Sassanid time. § 17
- Abu Hanifa ad-Dinavari . The Book of Long News, p. 117
- Dashkov S. B. Kings of Kings - Sassanids. - p. 184.
- Dashkov S. B. Kings of Kings - Sassanids. History of Iran III - VII centuries. in legends, historical chronicles and modern studies. - M .: MEDIA-ASIA, 2008. - 352 p. - 4000 copies - ISBN 978-5-91660-001-8 .