Sophie Magdalena Scholl ( German: Sophie Magdalena Scholl , May 9, 1921 - February 22, 1943 ) - activist of the German Resistance . Together with her older brother Hans Scholl and several other students at the University of Munich, she created the White Rose group, whose members conducted peaceful anti-Nazi actions (such as scattering leaflets). Sophie and Hans Scholl were arrested for treason and executed on the guillotine .
|Birth name||Sophie Magdalena Scholl|
|Date of Birth||May 9, 1921|
|Place of Birth||Weimar Republic , Forchtenberg|
|Date of death||February 22, 1943 (21 years old)|
|Place of death||Munich , Third Reich|
Around the 1970s, interest in the fate of Sophie and Hans Scholl began to grow in Germany, now they are considered symbols of non-violent resistance to Nazism .
Sophie Scholl was born in the city of Forchtenberg , the mayor of which was her father. She was the fourth child of five. In 1930, the family moved to Ludwigsburg , and two years later to Ulm . From the age of twelve, Sophie was a member of the Nazi Union of German Girls . Brothers Sophie Hans and Werner (he went missing at the front in June 1944) and Inge's sister were arrested by the Gestapo in 1937 on suspicion of illegal political activities (membership in the German youth movement ), but were released.
In 1940, Sophie graduated from high school and got a job as a teacher in a kindergarten . The following year, she was forced to go to work at the Imperial Labor Service (RAD), since internships at RAD subordinate institutions were a prerequisite for entering a university. In May 1942, Sophie entered the University of Munich at the Faculty of Philosophy . Hans already studied at the Faculty of Medicine and introduced Sophie to his friends, who formed a close circle connected by common philosophical, political, musical, literary and sports interests.
Starting in the summer of 1942, several students, including Hans Scholl, began to compose and secretly distribute leaflets calling for resistance to Nazism. Leaflets were issued on behalf of the White Rose, as the group called itself. Contrary to popular belief, Sophie did not participate in the writing of the leaflets. She joined the group later, but immediately began to take an active part in her life. On February 18, 1943, Sophie and Hans were detained at the university for scattering leaflets. Later, other members of the White Rose were arrested.
The trial of Hans, Sophie, and Christoph Probst took place at the People’s Court of Justice on February 22. The court, chaired by Roland Freisler, found all three guilty of high treason and sentenced to death . The verdict noted: “The defendants called for sabotage of the military industry, they condemned the national socialist way of life of our people, propagandized defeatist sentiments and spoke in the worst way about the Fuhrer. Thus, they played into the hands of the enemies of the Reich and undermined the defense of our country. For this they will have to pay with their own lives ”  . On the same day, the sentence was carried out: all three were guillotined in the Stadelheim prison in Munich. The executioner was , known for his modernization of the guillotine and the fact that, according to his own estimates, 3165 people were beheaded.
Perpetuation of memory
In honor of Hans and Sophie Scholl, the area on which the main building of the University of Munich ( German: Geschwister-Scholl-Platz ) was located was renamed, and the institute of political science in its composition was also named. The monument in honor of the participants of the "White Rose" is installed in the courtyard of the university. Among the university student committee, there is widespread support for the initiative to assign the university, now named after the two rulers of Bavaria, the name of Hans and Sophie Scholl  . February 22, 2003, on the sixtieth anniversary of the execution of Sophie, her bust was installed in the pantheon of prominent Germans Valhalle .
Sophie Scholl's life is dedicated to three films released in Germany in the 1970s and 1980s. In 2005, the picture " Sophie Scholl - The Last Days " was released, the main role in which was played by Julia Jench . The slogan of the film: "In 1943, a young woman stood up to fight Nazism, her courage made her a legend, this is her story ...". The film was nominated for an Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film , and Jench herself received several awards, including the Silver Lion of the Berlin Film Festival , the award of the German Film Academy and the main European film award , Felix .
Since 1980, a literary prize has been awarded to Hans and Sophie Scholl . She notes works that "testify to spiritual independence, encourage civil liberty, moral, intellectual and aesthetic courage and thereby give a tangible impetus to the sense of responsibility of contemporaries."
- Sentence in the case of Hans and Sophie Scholl and Christoph Probst (German)
- Eike Petering. Sophie-Scholl-Film (German) (link unavailable) . Deutschlandfunk (July 20, 2004). Date of treatment March 4, 2009. Archived March 9, 2009.
- Inge Scholl, Dorothee Sölle. The White Rose = Die Weiße Rose. - Wesleyan University Press, 1986. - 160 p. - ISBN 0819560863 .