Edmund Henry Hinman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby ( 1st Edcund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby ; April 23, 1861 - May 14, 1936 ) - English Field Marshal .
|Edmund Henry Hinman Allenby (1st Viscount Allenby)|
|Date of Birth||April 23, 1861|
|Place of Birth||Breckenhöst, Nottinghamshire , UK|
|Date of death||May 14, 1936 (75 years old)|
|Place of death||London , UK|
|Type of army||British army|
|Years of service||1880 - 1925|
|Battles / wars|
|Awards and prizes|
He participated in the Boer and World War I, became famous in the battle of Megiddo , considered the last classic battle with the use of cavalry .
Allenby was born in 1861 in England . He graduated from the Royal Military Academy in Sandhurst. After graduation, he entered the 6th Dragoon Battalion (6th Inniskilling Dragoons).
Allenby was sent to serve in Africa , first to the area of modern Botswana , then to Zululand . In 1890, he returned to England with the unit. In 1897 he received the rank of major .
In 1898, Allenby moved to the Third Cavalry Brigade, stationed in Ireland ; and in 1899 he again went to Africa, where the Second Boer War began. Having finished the war with the rank of colonel , Allenby returned to England in 1902 and took command of the selected cavalry units (5th Royal Irish Lancers). From 1905 to 1910, Allenby commanded the 4th Cavalry Brigade. After that, given his extensive experience in the cavalry, Allenby was appointed cavalry inspector.
World War I
At first, Allenby was sent to the Western Front, was appointed commander of the cavalry division and distinguished himself in the battle of Mons , covering up the English retreat. In 1915, Allenby commanded the fifth corps in the second battle of Ypres . In October of the same year he was appointed commander of the Third English Army, but was removed after he did not use the breakthrough to advance in the battle of Arras .
In 1917, Allenby succeeded Sir Archibald Murray as commander of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force. Immediately after arrival, he learned that his only son had died on the Western Front. Allenby moved the headquarters from Cairo to the front-line Rafah , reorganized his forces and introduced strict discipline in the troops. In addition, Allenby has established ongoing funding for Lawrence of Arabia .
After analyzing the causes of the failure of his predecessor, Allenby was able to capture Gaza , sending troops not to a frontal attack, but bypassing, capturing Be'er Sheva first (in addition, Allenby made efforts to misinform the enemy). This allowed the British to go on the offensive on the Palestinian front, and on December 9 they took Jerusalem . Allenby and his officers entered the city on foot, not on horseback, paying tribute to the significance of the holy city.
The German attacks on the Western Front did not allow the British to send reinforcements to the Middle East, and after unsuccessful attempts to capture Amman in March and April 1918, Allenby stopped the attack. The arrival of new troops from the colonies ( Australia , New Zealand , India , South Africa; these units were transferred from Mesopotamia and from the Western Front) allowed him to resume the operation. After many deceitful maneuvers and simulations of activities in the Jordan Valley , as well as attacks by Lawrence of Arabia units on objects in the Turkish rear, Allenby sent a major strike along the coast. In less than a day, British troops reached Nazareth , Megiddo, and Jenin ; and in the following days, Haifa and Amman were captured. For several days, the British cavalry, using the support of British aviation (which had absolute superiority), went behind the Turks and blocked their path to retreat. Having broken through the last line of defense of the Turks, the British occupied Dar'a on September 27, Damascus on October 1 , Beirut on October 8 , and Aleppo on October 26 . On October 30, Turkey surrendered.
In 1919, Allenby received the rank of Field Marshal and the title of Viscount Megiddo and Felikstow . He remained in the Middle East until 1925 as the High Commissioner of Egypt and Sudan until they gained independence. Allenby resigned in 1925 . Since 1926 - rector of the University of Edinburgh . He died in London in 1936 , from a rupture of cerebral aneurysm .
The name Allenby has street names in many cities of Israel and in Beirut , for example, in Tel Aviv , Allenby Street is one of the main shopping streets; one of the bridges over the Jordan is named after him. The role of General Allenby in the epic biopic “ Lawrence of Arabia ” was played by Jack Hawkins .