Jayavarman VII  ( Khmer. ជ័យវរ្ម័ន ទី ៧ ), 1125 ? - 1218 ) - king of the Khmer empire ( 1181 - 1218 ?).
|ជ័យវរ្ម័ន ទី ៧|
|Spouse||Jayarajadevi , Indradevi|
|Children||sons of Indravarman II , Suryakumar , Virakumara|
The son of King Dharanindravarman II and Queen Jayarajakudamani . After the death of his first wife, Jayarajadevi , he married her sister Indradevi . Both women are believed to have been the source of inspiration for Jayavarman VII, particularly in his unusually strong attachment to Buddhism .
The early years
Jayavarman VII probably spent his early years away from the Khmer capital.
Cham defeat and coronation
In 1177, and then in 1178, the Cham invaded Cambodia . In 1178, a fleet of chams marched up the Mekong , then along Lake Tonle Sap and unexpectedly attacked the capital Yashodharapura through a tributary from the side of the lake, destroying it, and the king - dying. In 1178, Jayavarman VII, already at the age of 50, leads the army and expels the chams . Returning to the capital, he finds it in desolation. He put an end to the disputes of the warring factions and was crowned in 1181. In the early years of his reign, he probably repelled another Cham attack and crushed the uprising in the vassal kingdom of Malyang ( Battambang ). The fugitive prince Sri Vidyananda , who then played an important role in the defeat and conquest of Tiampa (1190–1191), helped him with his military skills. During his reign, the Khmer Empire experienced an era of its greatest power - it occupied the most extensive territory: the Korat plain, the river valleys of the Menam and Mekong , part of southern Malaysia, northern Laos and Tiampa . Tribute was imposed on Java , the Burmese state of Haripunjaya, and possibly Dayviet .
Jayavarman VII was the first Buddhist on the throne, changed the cult of Shiva- devaraja to the cult of Buddha-raja. Two years after the death of Jayavarman VII, the Khmers leave Tiampa , splits begin on the remote borders of the empire, and Thais threaten the borders. The religious division of the Brahmins does not gain strength, the empire accepts the Hinayana (Lesser Chariot), which thus consolidates Buddhism on Khmer land.
During his 30-year reign, Jayavarman VII carried out a grandiose program for the construction of public buildings and temples. As a follower of Mahayana Buddhism , he proclaimed his goal to alleviate the suffering of his people. One of the inscriptions tells us: “He suffered from the pain of his subjects more than from his own, the pain of human bodies was a spiritual pain for him, and therefore even more piercing.” This statement should be read in the light of the indisputable fact that the construction of numerous temples the labor of thousands of workers was required, and the reign of Jayavarman VII was marked by the centralization of the state and the concentration of the population in large centers.
Historians distinguish three phases in the construction program of Jayavarman VII. At the first stage, he concentrated on building public facilities such as hospitals, rest homes along the roads and water tanks. After that, he built a couple of temples in memory of his parents - Ta Prohm in honor of his mother and Preah Khan in honor of his father. And finally, he built his own Mount Bayon temple and the city of Angkor Thom around it. He also built Neakpean (a temple of interwoven nagas ), one of the smallest and most picturesque temples in the Angkor complex - a fountain on an island in the middle of an artificial lake surrounded by four ponds.
Built in his reign: Preah Khan in Angkor, Preah Khan Kampong Piles , Ta Prohm , Neak Poan , Ta Som , Banteay Kdei , Ta Nei , Srahsrang , Angkor Thom , Bayon , Elephant Terrace , Leper King Terrace , Royal Palace Reservoir .
In 1186, Jayavarman VII dedicated the Ta Prohm temple (the eye of Brahma ) to his mother. One inscription says that 80,000 people served the temple, including 18 high priests and 615 dancers. The first film about Lara Croft was shot here.
Angkor Thom and Bayon
Angkor Thom (“Great Angkor”) was the new urban center, then called Indrapattha . In the center of the new city is one of his most outstanding achievements - the temple, now called Bayon , a many-faced temple with many towers, combining the iconography of Buddhism and Hinduism . On the external walls are bas-reliefs, which depict not only the battles, but also the daily life of the Khmer army and its convoy. These bas-reliefs depict people following the army with animals and carts, hunters, women cooking, merchants selling something to Chinese merchants. There are also images of the battle on the Great Tonle Sap Lake.
Jayavarman VII was the great and generous king of Cambodia . He built 102 hospitals for his subjects. According to the inscription in the Preah Khan temple, he had two wives and four sons, which is also confirmed by the inscription in the Ta Prohm temple.
Posthumous Name: Maha Paramasangatapada
|Monarchs of Cambodia|
|Emperor of Cambujades|
1181 - 1218
- Jayavarman VII / N.N. Bektimirova // Grigoryev - Dynamics. - M .: Big Russian Encyclopedia, 2007. - P. 624. - ( Big Russian Encyclopedia : [in 35 vols.] / Ch. Ed. Yu. S. Osipov ; 2004—2017, vol. 8). - ISBN 978-5-85270-338-5 .