Gustav Gustavovich Ernesaks ( est. Gustav Ernesaks ; 1908 - 1993 ) - Estonian choral conductor , composer , teacher , publicist . Hero of Socialist Labor (1974). People's Artist of the USSR ( 1956 ). Winner of the Lenin (1970) and two Stalin Prizes ( 1947 , 1951 ). The author of the music of the National Anthem of the Estonian SSR .
ect. Gustav ernesaks
|Date of Birth||November 29 ( December 12 ) 1908|
|Place of Birth||der. Railing , |
Revel County ,
|Date of death||January 24, 1993 (84 years)|
|Place of death||Tallinn , Estonia|
|A country||USSR → Estonia|
choir conductor , composer , film composer , music teacher , publicist
Born on November 29 ( December 12 ), 1908 , in the village of Perila (now in Raaziku municipality , Harju County , Estonia ). In 1912, the family moved to Tallinn and lived in the Lasnamäe district.  
Simultaneously with his studies at the Tallinn Gymnasium, he studied at the Tallinn Conservatory (now the Estonian Academy of Music and Theater ; 1924-1927, piano and organ class). In 1929 he entered the Conservatory again, from which he graduated in 1931 in the class of musical pedagogy and in 1934 - in the composition class of A. Kapp . In the conservatory he also studied under Y. Aavik .
From 1931 - teacher of singing in educational institutions (2nd Tallinn Gymnasium for Girls (1931–1937), Tallinn City School of Commerce and Commerce for Boys (1932–1935), Elfrida Lender’s Private Gymnasium for Girls (1934–1940), Tallinn English College (1937–1940) and choir conductor (Välgumihklid Choir, Choir of the 2nd Tallinn Gymnasium for Girls, Mixed Choir of the Tallinn English College, Tallinn Women's Educational Workers Choir (1931–1941), Mixed Choir ÜENÜTO). In 1935— In 1937 he led the Male Choir Singing Society in Tallinn.
In the same years he began his creative activity. Since 1937 - teacher of the pedagogical department, in 1944-1946 - dean of the performing department, since 1945 - head of the choir conducting department of the Tallinn Conservatory (professor since 1945).
In 1942–1944, he was the head and conductor of choirs of Estonian art ensembles, a group of evacuated Estonian cultural figures assembled in Yaroslavl .
In 1944, he founded and headed (artistic director and principal conductor) the male choir of the Tallinn Philharmonic Society (later the State Academic Male Choir of the Estonian SSR, since 1989 the National Male Choir of Estonia; the first such professional group in the country). He led it until 1975 and during this time the choir received great fame in the Soviet Union .
Since 1933 - participant, since 1947 - head and principal conductor of Estonian song festivals , held in Tallinn every five years.
Among the works of the composer, the most famous of his songs, including "My homeland, my love." Author of a number of operas , choral works, music for dramatic performances and films. The composer’s works are marked by simplicity and clarity of style, the author often uses folk melodies in them.
Member of the Board of the Union of Composers of the Estonian SSR. Member of the Republican Committee for the Defense of Peace (since 1953), Chairman of the Estonian Branch of the USSR-Czechoslovakia Friendship Society.
Deputy of the Supreme Council of the Estonian SSR 4-7 convocations.
Gustav Ernesaks died on January 24, 1993 . He was buried at the Forest Cemetery in Tallinn  .
- Wife (from 1935) - Stella Ernesaks (1909–1973), physical education teacher
- Son - Ott Ernesaks (1938–2009), a sports diving coach
- Grandson - Mart Ernesaks, pianist
Awards and titles
- Hero of Socialist Labor (1974)
- Honored Artist of the Estonian SSR (1942)
- People's Artist of the Estonian SSR (1947) 
- People's Artist of the USSR (1956)
- Stalin Prize Second Degree (1947) - for concert and performing activities
- Stalin Prize of the third degree (1951) - for the opera “Coast of Storms” (1949)
- Lenin Prize (1970) - for concert programs of 1967-1968 and 1968-1969
- Six State Prizes of the Estonian SSR (1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1959, 1965)
- Order of the Estonian Red Cross Class V ( 1938 ) 
- Three Orders of Lenin (1950, 1967, 1974)
- Order of the October Revolution (1978)
- Order of the Red Banner of Labor (1946)
- Order "Badge of Honor" (1965)
- Order of Honor (USSR) (1988)
- Prize "Golden Disc" company " Melody " - for recording choral music
- Honorary Citizen of Tallinn (1978)
- Music of the National Anthem of the Estonian SSR (1944)
- operas “Pükhayarv” (1946), “The Coast of Storms” (1949), “Hand in Hand” (1955, new version of Mihkel and Mari, 1964), “Baptism of Battle” (1956), “Grooms from Mulgimaa” (1959)
- for the unaccompanied choir - the cantata “Battle Horn” (words from the Estonian epos “Kalevipoeg”, 1943), “Sing, free people” (text. D. Vaarandi , 1950), “From Thousands of Hearts” (word P. Rummo, The next Y. Smuula , 1954)
- for the male choir - the poem "The Girl and Death" (words: M. Gorky , 1961), "The Mysterious Trumpeter" (1963), "The Kannelist" (1963)
- for choir with piano accompaniment - suite “How Fishermen Live” (words by Y. Smuula , 1953), a suite of the chapel “O Motherland, My Love” (1944), “Cold Stoves”, “March of the St. George’s Night”, “Evening on Coast ”,“ Song of the Reapers ”,“ Poem about Spring ”,“ We have a wedding on the collective farm ”(all - 1948),“ New Year's comic ”(1951),“ I was called to the wedding ”(1952), Songs of the Ivanova of the day (1957 ), the poem "Millennial Lenin" (words by I. Bekher , 1969)
- choral songs (over 300), including “My Fatherland is my love” (words by L. Koidula , 1943), “New Year's goat” (words of the people, 1952), “Tartu White Nights” (words E Enno, 1970)
- solo and children's songs
- processing of folk songs and songs for folk words (over 200)
- music for drama theater performances, including “The Iron House” by E. Tammlaan, films.
- 1955 - Yachts in the sea
- 1957 - On the Turn
- 1962 - Two illustrations (animated)
- “The lips sing and the heart is restless” (1971)
- "So the wheel was spinning around" (1977)
- "The Call" (1980)
- "The wave rises" (1983)
- "On the song road" (1985).
|Estonian postage stamp|
- Since 1993, the Gustav Ernesaks Foundation has awarded scholarships for the development of choral music named after G. Ernesaks (since 2001 the scholarships are awarded by the Estonian National Foundation for Culture ).
- In 1997, the Estonian Cultural Capital Foundation acquired a house in Kadriorg (Tallinn) where G. Ernesaks lived from 1953 to 1993 with his family, which was completely renovated and became a home for guests of the Eesti Contsert and the composer’s museum  .
- In 2004, the bronze sculpture of the composer (sculptors Ekke Väli and Vello Lillemets) was installed on the Singing Field in Tallinn.
- In 2008, an Estonian postage stamp dedicated to the 100th anniversary of Gustav Ernesaks was issued.
- V. Viires : Gustav Ernesaks. - Tallinn, 1983
- Estonian biographical dictionary . Tallinn, 2002.