The music of Moldova is the music of the Principality of Moldavia , later Bessarabia and Zaprutsky Moldavia , the Moldavian ASSR , the Moldavian SSR , and modern Moldova. Moldavian music originates from folk music, distinguished by its originality and richness of genres and forms. She went a long way of development from folk motives to secular, academic and modern music of various styles and directions.
A special place in Moldavian music belongs to doina - lyrical folk songs that arose in the era of early feudalism , and colindas - ritual songs akin to Slavic carols .
Professional musical culture arose in the Principality of Moldova in the Middle Ages. Around 1500 , a singing school was established in Putnyansky Monastery . In 1653 , Mr. Basil Lupu founded a singing school in Iasi at the Church of the Three Saints. The medieval Moldavian army included trumpeters. In the middle of the 15th century , there were singers at the gospodar court.
The Principality of Moldova for a long time was dependent on the Ottoman Empire , which was reflected in the Turkish influence on Moldavian music. So in the XVII century , brass bands participated in court festivities - Meterkhan or Tubulkhan. At the court, the orchestras of Moldavian folk instruments — tarafs — also played . Performances by comedians and masqueraches ( buffoons ) were accompanied by playing musical instruments. Secular music was presented by professional musicians and singers lautars .
Sovereign Dmitry Kantemir is the author of the treatise “Book of the science of music in a literary manner” ( tour Kitâbu 'Ilmi'l-Mûsikí alâ Vechi'l-Hurûfât ), considered the theoretical basis of Turkish music and containing records of about 350 Turkish musical works, many of which preserved only in this work  .
Medieval Moldavian music developed on the basis of the oral tradition, but in the 19th century a transition to a written tradition was outlined, new secular genres in composer creativity began to develop. The first music institute, the Philharmonic and Drama Conservatory ( 1836 ), was created in Zaprutian Moldova at the initiative of Elena Asaki and her husband Gheorghe . The conservatory lasted two years. Bellini 's opera Norma was staged in Moldovan by her students and amateur actors.
Bessarabia as part of Russia
After Bessarabia became part of Russia , Russian and West European musical culture began to penetrate the region. Tours of foreign opera and opera troupes, vocalists and instrumentalists took place, including celebrities such as Franz Liszt and Robert Schumann . The spread of modern music in Bessarabia was facilitated by Russian military bands. Concerts and theatrical and musical performances are organized, theater and concert halls are built, music educational institutions are opened.
From the end of the 18th century, Moldavian folk melodies began to attract Russian and Western European composers. The motives of Moldavian melodies were used in their works by O. A. Kozlovsky , B. Romberg , M. I. Glinka (music for Bakhturin ’s drama “Gypsy from Moldova”), A. N. Verstovsky and others. Russian military bandmaster F. Ruzhitsky in 1834 in the year published the processing of Moldavian folk melodies, and in 1854 a collection of Moldavian folk tunes K. Mikuli was published in Lviv . One of the founders of Moldavian professional music was the composer and choirmaster G.V. Muzichesku .
In the 1820-50s. amateur concerts were held in aristocratic salons and houses of the Chisinau intelligentsia. The performances of the Lautar Orchestra of Boyar Bartholomew and the musical evenings of college assessor Z. Rally were very popular. The first musical and theatrical performances took place approx. 1820 , opera performances - circa 1833 . Foreign opera companies (Frischa, Barbieri, etc.), as well as Russian theater groups (Babanina, Brumitsky, Gagarin, Erokhin, Rykanovsky, etc.), whose repertoire included the operas Askold's Grave and Pan Twardowski, toured Bessarabia. N. Verstovsky , “ Life for the Tsar ” and “ Ruslan and Lyudmila ” M. I. Glinka , “Caliph of Baghdad” F. Boaldier , “Favorite” G. Donizetti , “Fra Devil” by D. Ober , “Misfortune from the carriage " V. A. Pashkevich ," The Firebird "by K. Cavos and F. Antonollini.
In the second half of the 19th century, the musical life of not only Chisinau, but also Bender , Balti and other cities, was revived. In Bessarabia, A. G. Rubinshtein , violinists G. Venyavsky and P. Sarasate , cellist K. Yu. Davydov , singer E. A. Larovskaya , and choirs G. V. Muzicheskoy and D. Slavyansky performed .
Local musicians gave a lot of concerts - violinists K.P. Gulak-Artemovsky, P.I. Shumsky and others, Lautars G. Paun, K. Parno, Yanka Perzh, List student A. Khlebovsky, graduates of the St. Petersburg Conservatory P.I. V.P. Gutor, a graduate of the Vienna Conservatory M.G. Schildkret (1867-1941). In 1880 , the society of music lovers "Harmony" was created.
In the late XIX - early XX centuries. Chisinau has become one of the largest cultural centers in the south of the Russian Empire. Outstanding performers L. S. Auer , I. Hoffman, A. I. Ziloti , A. V. Nezhdanova, S. V. Rakhmaninov , A. N. Skryabin , L. V. Sobinov , Y. Kheifets , F I. Chaliapin et al. In 1893 , the music school of V.P. Gutor was opened, which existed for a short time, reopened only in 1900 and worked thereafter for 7 years. In 1899 , on the initiative of composer V. Rebikov, the Harmony Society was transformed into the Chisinau branch of the Russian Musical Society . Under him, in 1900 a music school was formed. In 1902 , a singing school was opened. Its leader was the composer K.F. Khrshanovsky .
Chisinau conductors M.A. Berezovsky and A. Frunze, singers P.D. Alekseev, L.O. Babich , E.V. Luchezarskaya, composers E.K. Koka and Sh . Many natives of Bessarabia were educated in Moscow, St. Petersburg and Iasi. In the Transnistrian village of Vykhvatintsy , the famous Russian composer A. G. Rubinstein was born, and the Russian teacher A. B. Goldenweiser was from Chisinau. The activities of the singers A.P. Antonovsky, G. D. Afanasy, L. Ya. Lipkovskaya are associated with Bessarabia.
Bessarabia as part of Romania
The musical culture of Bessarabia in the interwar period developed in difficult conditions. Many musicians were forced to leave the region to get an education. So S. Nyaga , M. Chebotar , Sh. B. Aranov left.
The activity of G. A. Yatsentovsky, I. L. Dailis , Yu. M. Guz , K. F. Khrashanovsky, M. A. Berezovsky, M. K. Byrki, A. V. Yakovlev was fruitful. The culture of choral singing developed, church, school and working choirs performed. Moldovan singers A.P. Antonovsky, N.I. Nagachevsky, M.F. Zlatova, and conductor I. B. Beyn made attempts to create an opera house in Chisinau, but the theater could not continue working without state subsidies. There was no permanent symphony orchestra in Bessarabia, but there was a symphony orchestra of the first male gymnasium under the direction of conductor F.V. Luzhansky. Under the Chisinau Men's Real School, the balalaika orchestra worked under the direction of Z. D. Porosech, founded in 1907 .
In the Romanian period, composers E.K. Kokoi , M.K. Byrkoy and K.N. Zlatov created significant works of various genres.
After the creation of the MASSR , many amateur dance and drama circles, brass bands, ensembles of Moldavian and Russian folk instruments were founded in the republic. In Baltics in 1928 , the Moldavian Musical Chapel was created under the direction of M. A. Kaftanati. In 1930 , the Doina chapel was organized in Tiraspol , the national repertoire of which largely consisted of the processing of Moldavian folk songs by N.N. Vilinsky and his students. Vilinsky also owns the first theoretical work, “Features of the Structure of Moldavian Folk Music”  . In the same year, a symphony orchestra was created on the basis of the Moldavian music chapel. Under the Broadcasting Committee, an ensemble of folk music was organized under the direction of Lautar G. Murga. The 1930s saw the activity of the performer of Moldavian folk songs, E.P. Budak and chamber singer G.S. Bryuner.
N. N. Vilinsky wrote the cantata "Moldova" (1939), suites for a symphony orchestra, processing of Moldavian folk songs; V. S. Kosenko - “Moldavian Poem” for the symphony orchestra (1937); L. S. Gurov - “Doina” for mixed choir and piano (1935), Symphony No. 1 (1938) based on Moldovan folklore, processing of Moldavian songs. Processing of Moldavian melodies was created by K.F. Dankevich and S.D. Orfeev .
In 1937 , the Moldavian branch of the Union of Composers of the Ukrainian SSR was formed, which included P.I. Bachinin, G.I. Gershfeld , D.G. Gershfeld , V.L. Polyakov , A.P. Kamenetsky. V. L. Polyakov wrote the first Moldavian ballet Ilyana (The Old Tale) on the libretto by Y. Sidorenko, the symphonic poem Moldavia, a suite on Moldavian themes, and Moldavian Rhapsody for violin and orchestra. D. G. Gerschfeld wrote a dance suite "Harvest Festival".
In 1940, a state conservatory, a philharmonic society, a music and drama theater, and a secondary music school were opened in Chisinau. The Philharmonic Society included a symphony orchestra, Doina choral chapel, as well as a group of pop artists. In the fall of the same year, the first amateur art competition was held. In 1940, a jazz orchestra was organized under the direction of Shiko Aranov during the Great Patriotic War, performed in military units and hospitals. The years of the war saw a fruitful period of creativity of the Moldavian composer Stefan Nyagi . In 1942 he wrote the symphonic suite “Moldova”, in 1943–44. - “ Doina ” for a coloratura soprano accompanied by a piano and a concert for violin and symphony orchestra, in 1943 - “Poem on the Dniester ”, dedicated to the struggle of the Moldavian people against invaders. He also owns choral works on verses by Emelian Bukov “ Choir of victory” and “We bring victory on banners”. David G. Gershfeld , S. B. Shapiro and others worked in the genre of patriotic songs.
After the war, musical groups resumed their activity, and the rapid development of music began. Stefan Neag creates the cantatas " Stefan the Great " (1945), "Bessarabians" (1947), "Jubilee" (1949), and the oratorio "Song of the Renaissance" (1951). Eugene Koka creates string quartets, the symphonic poem “ Codrul ” (1948), the oratorio “Song of Kotovsky ” (1950), the composition “New Doina” for voice and orchestra of folk instruments. Such composers as L. S. Gurov , S. M. Lobel , V. G. Zagorsky, V. L. Polyakov, A. P. Luxemburg , G. S. Nyaga, P. B. Rivilis , N. I. Macovei, T.V. Kiriyak.
In the genre of instrumental concert work D. G. Gershfeld , D. G. Fedov , M. Sh. Fishman , A. B. Mulyar , A. P. Luxemburg , Z. M. Tkach , E. D. Doga . Moldavian composers of the Soviet period create numerous rhapsodies, suites, ballads, processing of Moldavian folk songs, music for children, romances. Much attention is paid to the development of choral art.
The genres of opera and ballet are not ignored. The Moldavian historical and legendary opera “Grozovan” ( 1956 ) by David Gersfeld on the libretto by V. A. Russo gained fame. Gershfeld’s opera Aurelia (1958) is dedicated to the defenders of the motherland in World War II. The opera by A. G. Styrchi “The Heart of Domnica” ( 1960 ) tells of the struggle of the underground members of Bessarabia for reunification with the Soviet Union. E. L. Lazarev creates the operas Bedbug (1963) based on the play by Vladimir Mayakovsky , called up by the Revolution (1970), Dragon (1976) based on the tale of Eugene Schwartz , and the radio opera Doves in a Slanting Ruler (1976). Public recognition is received by the ballets Dawn by V. G. Zagorsky (1959), Broken Sword (1959), Ghosts (1959), Anthony and Cleopatra (1965), Arabesques (1970) E. L. Lazarev, “Radda” by D. G. Gershfeld (1975), “Crossroads” by V. G. Zagorsky (1974). More than 50 opera and ballet productions were performed by the conductor and artistic director of the National Opera in 1983-2003. Alexander Samuel .
In the Soviet period, much attention was paid to the development of music education. In 1963, the G.V. Muzichesku State Institute of Arts was created, three music schools, more than 50 children's music schools, and a secondary special music boarding school worked.
The academic ensemble of folk dance “ Jock ”, the orchestra of Moldavian folk instruments “ Flurash ”, the ensembles “Codru”, “ Lautarius ”, the groups “Norok”, “Contemporanul”, “ Horizon ”, “ Play ” were very popular .
Moldova was visited by such outstanding musical figures as Dmitry Shostakovich , Aram Khachaturian , Tikhon Khrennikov , Svyatoslav Richter and others.
Moldavian music has deep national traditions. It is typical for her to use such folk musical instruments as nai , fluer , etc. In recent decades, modern musical directions - jazz, rock and metal - have been developing. Zdob şi Zdub and Gyndul Mytsey , as well as pop singers Aura, Riki Artesianu, O-Zone and others, Cleopatra Stratan , the daughter of the Moldavian singer Pavel Stratan , have become famous in the country and abroad. to the Guinness Book of Records as the youngest pop singer. She began performing on stage in 2006 at the age of three. In recent years, Moldova has been participating in the Eurovision song contest. In 2005 and 2011, Zdob şi Zdub played for Moldova, in 2006 - Natalia Gordienko and Arsenium , in 2007 - Natalia Barbu , in 2008 - Jeta Burlaku  .
Every year in Chisinau, the international festival of opera and ballet art “Invites Maria Bieşu” (“Vă invită Maria Bieşu”) takes place. The festival has been held since the early 1990s . and its organizer is the famous Moldavian opera singer - Maria Biesu . Every year, the best opera singers, ballet soloists, conductors, from Russia , Ukraine , Bulgaria , Italy , France , Austria , the USA and other countries come to Chisinau to participate in this festival  .
Since 2002 , every September, the Ethno-Jazz festival has been held in the city, at which jazz groups from Moldova, Russia, Israel , Poland , Germany , India and other countries perform  .
In 2004 , the first rock festival "The Old Miller" was held and has since become an annual event. The festival is organized by the beer companies of Moldova and Russia. Rock bands from Russia and Moldova are invited to the festival, including Va-Bank , Spleen , Bravo , Nogo Svelo , Pilot , Night Snipers , The End of the Film and others. In 2006 , the festival was attended by about 40 thousand people, which is two times more than in the past  .
In 2008 , the Ministry of Culture of Moldova banned artists from using the phonogram at official concerts held with state money. In case of using phonograms, the organizers of commercial concerts are obliged to inform about it in event posters  .
Every spring, in many cities of Moldova, the Martisor International Music Festival takes place, at which performers and ensembles of light and folk music, operettas, vocal-instrumental and jazz groups perform concerts. 
In Moldavian folk music, the most common are seven-step modes (Dorian, Ionian, Lydian, Mixolidian, Phrygian, Aeolian) with interval organization between adjacent steps in a whole tone and half tone . There are also frets that include one or two half-tone intervals, and a reduced fret. Moldavian music is mostly diatonic . In instrumental music there are chromatisms . An important place in Moldavian folk art is occupied by colindas , where archaic mode structures prevail. Colind music, along with dance music, has an ancient origin dating back to the era of syncretism .
The peculiarity of Moldavian music is modal variability. The most common major is minor , a little less than minor major. If in a major-minor the work usually begins in major and ends in minor, then in the minor-major system in major is a temporary deviation from the main key when the work begins and ends in minor.
Moldavian music is also present in such forms as a barrel (lamentation) and an urban romance that came to Moldova at the end of the 18th century . The rich folk art and instrumental melodies that perform the function of accompaniment to the dance, and are often independent works of art.
The wind instruments used to perform folk music include buchum , kaval , nai , taragot , trishka , valve trombone , trumpet , chimpoy , fluer ; to strings - cello , kobza , double bass , violin , dulcimer ; to the drums - a drum . In the past, bukhai , dyra , drimba , leuta , surla , tribeca , and tumblelic were common .
In Soviet times, the ensembles Mertsishor, Codru, Chobenash, Chokyrliya and Valentina Kozhokaru , Sergey Lunkevich , Konstantin Moskovich , Nicolae Sulak , Tamara Cheban became popular. Sophia Rotaru and Nadezhda Chepraga also perform folk songs.
Among modern performers of folk music, one should single out Vasily and Vitaly Advakhovs, Doina Arsen , Arseniy Botnaru , Sergey Belutsel , Valentin Golomoz , Zinaida Zhulya , Vasile Job .
Since 2005 , the radio "Noroc", which broadcasts folk music, has been operating in many settlements of Moldova  .
A special place is occupied by Moldavian dance music - lively, dynamic and fiery. Folk dances in Moldova are an integral attribute of any holiday, wedding, cumetria . The name of the popular jock dance even became a sign of mass festivities. Among the common dances, one should note bulgarian and Moldovan clothes with a musical size of 2/4 with a score of 2, the composition of which is dominated by the form of rondo (chorus - chorus), and round dances of cheese , olyander and choir . Musical forms of folk dances can be found in the works of contemporary Moldavian pop and rock artists.
Dmitry Cantemir in his “ Description of Moldova ” (1714) wrote  :
“The Moldavians have a different dance character than other nations, because they do not dance in two or four, like the French and Poles, but many people take part in the dances at once, forming a circle or a long row, and they dance more at weddings. When everyone, holding hands, dances in a circle, moving with a measured and harmonious step from right to left, such a dance is called the Chora, but when, standing in a long row and holding each other’s hands  so that the edges of the row remain free, go around with different turns, then such a dance is usually called Polish m word Danz (Dancz).
At weddings, before the shepherd blesses the couple, they solemnly dance in the courtyard and on the street in two rows - one consists of women, the other - of men. At the head of each row is an elected leader, an elderly and respected man who holds in his hand a staff painted in gold or another color, the end of which is tied with a Phrygian handkerchief. When you first move forward, one leader leads the dancers from right to left, and the other from left to right so that the rows are facing each other. Then - in the reverse order, turning his backs to each other. Finally, each row is spinning in intricate turns and, so as not to get confused, so slowly that you can barely notice their movement. In each row, the dancers take places according to the degree of their dignity. The wives and daughters of the boyars occupy places corresponding to the position of their husbands and fathers, but the leader of the dance always takes first place, the second - friend, the third - the groom. The same place among women is occupied by a friend and a bride, even if by their position they were much lower. After the wedding, both rows are mixed so that the married man holds the hand of his wife and the unmarried - the hand of the girl, equal in position to him, and so they spin and spin in a circle. Sometimes the dance moves in the form of a triangle, or in the form of a quadrangle, or in the form of an oval, or in the form of another irregular figure, depending on the desire and art of the leader.
In addition to such dances, during the festivities there are still others associated with superstitions, which should be composed of seven, nine, eleven and generally an odd number of dancers. These dancers are called kalushari . They gather once a year, dressed in women's dresses, put on their heads wreaths woven from wormwood leaves and decorated with other flowers, and so that they could not be recognized, they speak in female voices and cover their faces with a white shawl. They hold in their hands naked swords that can pierce any ordinary mortal if he dares to remove the veil from their faces. This right gives them an ancient custom, so no one can be blamed for this in killing a person. The leader of such a group of dancers is called the old man, his assistant is the primitzerium. It is the responsibility of the latter to ask the old woman what kind of dance he is going to start, and quietly inform the other dancers about it so that the people do not know the name of the dance before they see it with their own eyes, since they have more than a hundred musical motives for which dancing. Some of them are so masterfully performed that the dancers barely touch the ground and seem to fly through the air. Dancing and jumping so, they go around the cities and villages in continuous dances for ten days between the Ascension of the Lord and the Holy Trinity ...
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