A spring primrose , or a medicinal primrose , or a present primrose , or a spring primrose ( Latin Prímula véris ) is a perennial herbaceous plant , a species of the genus Primrose .
General view of the plant, Botanical Garden in Karlsruhe , Germany
|International scientific name|
Primula veris L. (1753)
The plant is found in forest and forest-steppe zones almost throughout Europe , including in the European part of Russia ; also grows in the Caucasus , Turkey and Iran . Prefers meadows , rare forests , edges, glades, shrubs .
Other Russian names: sheep’s sheep, white sheep’s letters, white letters, god’s hands  , ears, sky keys, golden keys, flowers of St. Peter . The primrose inflorescence looks like a bunch of keys; according to legend, these are the keys that spring opens the door to in the summer. According to another legend, the plant grew on the spot where St. Peter dropped the keys to paradise.
Names in other languages: English. Cowslip primrose , W. puddle. Wonjaty kropačk , wall. Briallen Fair , Dates Hulkravet Kodriver , Italy. Primula officinale , lit. Pavasarinė raktažolė , German Echte Schlüsselblume , Netherlands. Gulden sleutelbloem , nor. Marianøkleblom , Polish Pierwiosnek lekarski , Ukrainian Pervotsvіt spring , fin. Kevätesikko , fr. Primevère officinale , Czech Prvosenka jarní , Swede. Gullviva , esper. Printempa primolo .
The rhizome is short horizontal, numerous juicy thin roots depart from it.
The leaves are oblong-obovate in shape, wrinkled, serrated or not uniform in the edges, narrowed into a winged petiole, form a basal rosette . A leafless peduncle 5-30 cm high comes out from the middle of the outlet.
The flowers are regular, yellow, 7-15 mm in diameter, five-membered, dimorphic, with a 10-toothed cup , tilted to one side, bisexual, collected in a slightly drooping umbrella of 10-30 pieces. Corolla at the base volnolepolentny; the petals are dumb.
Pollination - with the help of insects (most often with the help of bumblebees and bees ), and the so-called dimorphic heterostyle is characteristic of the spring primrose . The essence of this adaptation to cross pollination is that the flowers in one part of the population have long columns, and in the other - short ones. The stigma of the long-columned form is located near the limb level, and the stamens are attached to the middle part of the corolla tube; the stigma of the short-columned form is located in the middle part of the corolla tube, and the stamens are near the limb level. The heterostyle of primroses was studied in detail by Charles Darwin in 1862 and 1877; After conducting various experiments, he concluded that heterostilic primroses have three possible pollination options (between different forms, between identical forms and self-pollination ), but the most favorable for plants is cross-pollination between different forms: in this case, more seeds are formed and they are more viable .
In the middle zone of the European part of Russia, the plant blooms in April - July.
The fruit is a box.
From left to right: leaf, flowers, fruits, fruits and seeds
- Primula veris L. Species Plantarum 1: 142–143 . 1753.
- Primula officinalis ( L. ) Hill Veg. Syst. 8: 25.1765.
- Primula veris var. officinalis L. sp. Pl. 142. 1753.
- Primula veris subsp. macrocalyx ( Bunge ) Lüdi - sometimes regarded as a standalone species Cowslip .
- Primula veris subsp. canescens ( Opiz ) Hayek ex Ludi
- Primula veris subsp. suaveolens ( Bertol. ) Gutermann & Ehrend.
Economic Significance and Application
Elevated organs stain tissues in a brown-olive color  .
The plant is widely used in folk and scientific medicine. For medicinal purposes, use a spring primrose leaf ( lat. Folium Primulae veris ), which is collected at the beginning of flowering plants and quickly dried at a temperature of 100-120 ° C in order to preserve ascorbic acid ; less often under a canopy and in attics, and a rhizome with roots ( Rhizoma cum radicibus Primulae ), dug up in the fall. Leaves containing up to 5.9% ascorbic acid, saponins , are used in the form of tea for vitamin deficiency ; leaf powder is also added to the first courses. Rhizome with roots contains up to 10% triterpene saponins. Their aglycones are primulagenins A, D, SD. Applied in the form of a decoction as an expectorant  . Flowers are used in the form of decoctions and infusions for migraines , neuralgia , colds, gout and rheumatism , for insomnia , for coughing  . Alcohol tincture of flowers is used as a sedative for insomnia and overexcitation. An infusion of leaves is used for gout, kidney and bladder diseases. Decoction and tincture of the root is prescribed as an emollient and expectorant for coughing, as a diuretic. Externally, the broth is used to rinse with inflammation of the throat, larynx and bronchitis. The Primula homeopathic remedy is prescribed for the treatment of catarrhal gastritis , cough and as a sedative for insomnia.
Leaves and stems are edible and can be added to salads , cabbage soup .
Early honey plant .
Favorite European wild rabbit plant.
Widely known as an ornamental plant . Prefers fertile well-drained soils , according to other sources - clay and loamy soils. Loves partial shade and plentiful watering. The plant is propagated by seeds, dividing plants older than three years and root cuttings .
Spring primrose is the official floral emblem of the Swedish province of Nerke  .
- For the conventionality of indicating the class of dicotyledons as a superior taxon for the plant group described in this article, see the APG Systems section of the Dicotyledonous article .
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- Spring primrose / Handbook of medicinal herbs. (inaccessible link) . Date of treatment April 12, 2008. Archived November 1, 2007.
- Svenska landskapsblommor : [ arch. 09/29/2017 ]: [ Swede. ] . - Naturhistoriska riksmuseet , 1996 .-- 11 augusti. - Date of treatment: 04/07/2018.
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- Lehtilä K., Syrjänen K., Leimu R., Garcia MB, Ehrlén J. Habitat change and demography of Primula veris: identification of management targets. Conserv Biol. 2006 Jun; 20 (3): 833-43. (eng.)
- Broda B. Primula veris L. and Primula elatior (L.) Scherb. as medicinal plants. Acta Pol. Pharm. 1952; 9 (1): 55-76; 1952; 9 (2): 85-95. (eng.)
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