Bowran ( bodhrán , / baʊrˈɑːn / , pronunciation variants - boran, bauran, boyran ) - Irish tambourine , used, as a rule, for the rhythmic accompaniment of traditional Irish music, and occasionally for solo playing.
|Classification||Percussion Instrument , Membranophone|
|Related tools||Tambourine , Crowdy Crown|
Diameter 25 to 65 cm (10-26 inches ), typically 35 to 45 cm (14-18 inches). The rim width is 9-20 cm (3.5-8 inches). Goatskin is stretched on one side of the tambourine (by the way, synthetic leather and new materials like kangaroo leather are used in modern production). The other side is open to the hand of the performer, who can control the pitch and timbre of the sound. There may be 1-2 crossbars inside, but they are usually not placed on professional tools.
They play on the bowran with a special one- or two-sided stick or hand (much less often). The Irish wand is called cipin , the English tipper or beater . Today, to achieve certain tones of sound, special panicle sticks of various types are also used.
Bowran can be equipped with a special system of tension and adjustment of the membrane, since the latter has the ability to respond to humidity. Thanks to this system, the membrane can be pulled up to the optimum state if it has "sat down" due to humidity, and you can also set it to a certain tone when playing with another instrument.
Bowran has found widespread use among the Irish, Scottish, as well as other so-called. Celtic (Breton, Galician, etc.) traditional musicians, as well as in some other musical styles. The Cornwall also has a tool similar to a bowran and is called a Crowdy Crown ( Crowns croder croghen , English crowdy-crawn )
There are several theories of the origin of the instrument:
- The instrument comes from Africa, and came to Ireland through Spain.
- The instrument originated in Central Asia and was brought to Ireland by Celtic migrants.
- The tool developed in rural Ireland from an agricultural tool ( sieve for grain).
- There is speculation that Bowran was already used during the Irish uprising of 1603 Irish troops as a war drum. There is also the assumption that bowworms were used for rhythmic accompaniment to military pipers . According to this theory, bowran is descended from old military drums.
Be that as it may, Bowran began to be widely used in folk music only in the middle of the 20th century, in the wake of a revival of interest in traditional Irish music. In many respects, the activity of the musician and public figure Sean O'Riada ( Ил . Seán Ó Riada ) and his group " Колтори Хуолон " ( Ирл . "Ceoltóirí Chualann" ) in the 1960s , where this instrument was used, greatly contributed to the popularization of Bowran . . Subsequently, many Irish folk revival groups included bowran in their instrumentation (for example, “ The Chieftains ”, “The Bothy Band”, “Planxty”).
The word "bodhrán" has several pronunciation variants in Gaelic, and, accordingly, several variants of transcription in Russian. The “boyran” variant roughly corresponds to the pronunciation of Donegal, “boran” - the west of the country, “bowran” - the Western Cork, “bauran” - the rest of the south. For native English speakers, the word is foreign; there is no single pronunciation.
Due to the peculiarities of the spelling of the Gaelic language, incorrect transcriptions are spread in the Russian language - “bodran”, “bodhran” and the like, as well as variants with an emphasis on the last syllable. Fortunately, not one of them was fixed as a language norm, and over time, errors of this kind are found less and less.
At the moment, the art of performance on the bowran has been brought to great heights, many musicians have become famous thanks to their skillful play.
Among the most famous boran performers:
- Kevin Coneff - The Chieftains
- Johnny “Ringo” McDonagh - De Dannan
- Tommy Hayes - Stockton's Wing
- Colm Murphy ( De Dannan )
- JohnJo Kelly - Flook
- Eamonn Murray - Beoga
- Kolin Morgan (Merlin)
- Mike Oldfield
- Mittleman, Josh The Bodhrán . Ceolas Music Pages. Date of treatment January 6, 2006. Archived February 17, 2011.
- Jeff, Meade The Bodhran Diaries unopened (link unavailable) . The Irish Philadelphia. Date of treatment January 5, 2007. Archived October 18, 2006.
- Carson, Chiaran Pocket Guide to Irish Folk Music . Archived on May 26, 2012. A chapter on Bowran.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20071118222708/http://audio.todayfm.com/audio/BodhranDuel.mp3 - Conor Lyons and Ronan O'Snodaigh battle it out live on The Ray D'Arcy Show, in the run up to the World Bodhran Championships 2007
- Bodhran as heard in the epic film TITANIC by Aaron Plunkett