Project 12322 Landing Ship Zubr is a Soviet small hovercraft (MDKVP), a military hovercraft . The largest hovercraft in the world  .
|Landing ship project 12322 "Bison"|
Landing hovercraft "Mordovia" and "Eugene Kocheshkov".
|Prior type||Project 12321 "Jeyran"|
|Years of construction||1987—2014|
|Years in the ranks||1988 - n. at.|
|In the ranks||ten|
|Height||21.9 m (largest in terms of airspace)|
|Power||5 × 10 000 l. with.|
|Speed||60 knots (111.12 km / h )|
|Sailing range||300 nautical miles|
|Autonomy of swimming||5 days|
|Landing capacity||150 tons|
|Artillery||two launchers of the A-22 Fire system for 140.3 mm unguided missile shells (ammunition - 66 rounds for each launcher) and a fire control system|
|Flak||two 30 mm automatic installations of the AK-630 type (ammunition - 3000 shells) and the MR-123-02 firing control system|
|Missile weapons||8 sets of portable air defense systems like "Needle" or "Stinger"|
MDKVP, the largest hovercraft in the world, is designed to receive naval assault units with military equipment from an equipped or non-equipped shore , transport by sea, land on the enemy’s coast, and fire support for landing troops. In addition, it can transport mines and set minefields .
Due to the design features of the air cushion, it can move on the ground, bypassing small obstacles (ditches and trenches) and minefields, move through swamps and land troops in the depths of the enemy’s defense. For MDKVP "Bison" is available for landing up to 70% of the total length of the coastline of the seas and oceans of the world.
By the end of the 1970s , Soviet designers had quite a wealth of experience in building hovercraft. The series are launched and have long been [ when? ] such ships as Skat , Kalmar , and Project 12321 Jeyran were operated.
To develop the concept of military hovercraft in 1978, the command of the Navy gave the mission "TsMKB Almaz" to create a more powerful landing ship. The design bureau began work, naming project 12322 under the code "Bison". The plan included an increase in speed, landing load and artillery and electronic weapons. The project, which became the development of " Dzheyranov ", was led by the chief designers L. V. Ozimov, Yu. M. Mokhov and Yu. P. Semenov, under the supervision of captain 2nd rank V.A. Litvinenko (later captain 2nd rank Yu. N. Bogomolov) from the navy. The original layout of the ship was the merit of the deputy chief designer G. D. Koronatov , who developed the preliminary design.
The lead mdkvp under the number mdk-95 was experienced and built in 1986 and, after lengthy tests, became part of the navy in 1988 . According to the results of these tests, the remaining ships of the series received some changes in design.
The drive of the airbag superchargers and propellers on the ship is carried out from the M35 installation with a total capacity of 50,000 liters. with. production of the State Enterprise "Scientific-Production Complex of Gas Turbine Engineering" Zorya "-" Mashproekt " ". The formation of the air cushion is served by 4 HO-10 injection units with an axial impeller with a diameter of 2.5 m. Traction for the movement of the vessel is created by three 4-blade reversing propellers with forced pitch control. Screws with a diameter of 5.5 m are installed in ring nozzles made of polymer composite materials manufactured by KTB Sudokompozit . Project 12322 ships have two power plants , consisting of two gas turbine generators with a capacity of 100 kW each and main switchboards. The movement of the ship and its technical means are controlled centrally, remotely and using automation elements. It is carried out from the main command post, central command post and remote controls.
The hulls of small landing ships are made entirely welded from high-strength corrosion-resistant aluminum - magnesium alloy. The main power bearing part of the ship's hull, providing strength and unsinkability of the ship, is a rectangular pontoon. The superstructure located on the pontoon is divided by two longitudinal bulkheads into 3 functional compartments. In the middle part there is a compartment for landing equipment with tank tracks and ramps. The main and auxiliary power plants, the personnel of the landing groups, residential premises, life support systems and protection against WMD (weapons of mass destruction) are located in the side compartments. A flexible air cushion fence is designed to hold the air cushion under the hull of the ship and to provide the required height of the vessel above the supporting surface ( clearance ). The fence is made in two-tier: with a flexible receiver and hinged elements - with crosswise sectioning of the air cushion with longitudinal and transverse keels. To maintain comfortable conditions at the combat posts, in the landing and in the crew accommodation, ventilation, air conditioning, heating, heat and sound insulating coatings, structures made of vibration-damping material are provided, and normal conditions for rest and nutrition of the crew are created.
The ship is capable of transporting:
- 3 main tanks with a total weight of up to 150 tons;
- or 10 armored personnel carriers , with a total mass of up to 131 tons and 140 troops;
- or 8 infantry fighting vehicles with a total mass of up to 115 tons;
- or 8 amphibious tanks.
For the landing there are 4 rooms with 140 seats. Instead of military equipment, the room can be equipped to accommodate an additional 366 people (about 500 people in total).
Loading and landing is carried out through the ramp located on the nose.
The construction of the first four DKVPs began in 1983 at the shipyards of the Primorsky Shipbuilding Plant and the Shipbuilding Plant More . The lead mdkvp pr.12322 under the number mdk-95 was actually experimental, built in 1986 and, after lengthy tests, became part of the navy in 1988. According to the test results, changes were made to the design of serial ships, including the composition of electronic weapons.
By the beginning of the 90s , the USSR Navy included 8 mdkvp. After the collapse of the USSR and the division of the Black Sea Fleet, Russia took 5, Ukraine transferred 3 combat ships Kramatorsk, Gorlovka, Artemovsk and 2 unfinished shipyards in Feodosia. One of them (Donetsk) was completed and introduced into the Ukrainian Navy in June 1993. Subsequently, 3 of them were decommissioned.
On November 25, 2014, the Minister of Industrial Policy of the Republic of Crimea Andrei Skrynnik announced that it is planned to resume construction of the Zubr project airborne landing ships on the basis of the More shipyard in Feodosia  .
On June 15, 2017, it was announced that in 2018 it is planned to revive the production of project Zubr type 12322 air cushion landing craft  . According to representatives of the More and Almaz factories, the beginning of the construction of ships is possible not earlier than 2019-2021  .
- Under a contract with Greece, from 2000 to 2004, 4 ships were sold, which became part of the Greek Navy .
- According to a statement from a representative of the Research and Design Center for Shipbuilding enterprise, Ukraine began to fulfill a contract with the PRC for the supply of 4 Zubr hovercraft. According to him, 2 ships will be built in Ukraine, and 2 more - in China with the participation of Ukrainian specialists. According to the Army, Conversion and Disarmament Research Center, in 2009 Ukrainian companies entered into a contract for the supply of a batch of small Zubr hovercraft to China in the amount of $ 315 million   . In September 2012, representatives of the FGC More factory and the Ukrspetsexport Group of Companies announced the beginning of mooring trials of the first contracted ship. On April 12, 2013, according to the contract, the first small landing ship was handed over to China  .
- Greece - 4 units
- China - 1 + 3 (project 958 "Bison") units
- Russia - 2 units
from 08/17/2001 - "Evgeny Kocheshkov"
In 2013-2014, it was repaired   
from 12.03.2001 - “Mordovia”
from 12.20.2000 - “ Kefallonia ” (Kefallonia) L180
since 1995 - Kramatorsk (Kramatorsk) U422
since 1995 - “Artyomovsk” (Artyomіvsk) U424
Donetsk (Donetsk) U420
- Project 12321 small hovercraft
- The Bison is the largest hovercraft in the world.
- The construction of the Zubr ships for the Russian Navy may resume in Feodosia
- Sailors will build flying ships
- Shipbuilders: “Bison” for the Navy will begin to be built no earlier than 2019-2021
- Ukraine has begun to fulfill a contract with the PRC for the supply of 4 Zubr ships
- China may be left without Ukrainian hovercraft. 7.4.2014
- FGC “SEA” IS COMPLETING THE BUDIVNITSVO MDC “BIZON” FOR THE PRC (VIDEO) unopened (unavailable link) . Date of treatment September 21, 2012. Archived May 22, 2014.
- landing ship "Eugene Kocheshkov" will return to the Baltic Fleet. 11/29/2013
- amphibious assault ship of the Eugene Kocheshkov BF arrived at its permanent base after repair. 03.3.2014
- Landing ship "Eugene Kocheshkov" fulfilled the landing of naval landing. 6/08/2014
- China bought from Greece
- China has adopted a Ukrainian-made air-cushion landing ship. 03.3.2014