Oranienbaum bridgehead (also known as Oranienbaum patch , Primorye bridge , Tamengonta republic , Lebyazhinsky republic , Small land ) - an area on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland , which was cut off from the main Soviet forces during the Great War and the Great Patriotic War ] .
From the west, the Oranienbaum Piglet was bounded by Kernov , from the north by the Gulf of Finland , from the east by Old Peterhof , to the south went several tens of kilometers from the coast. The center of the bridgehead was at Fort Krasnaya Gorka . The size of the bridgehead: 65 km along the front, up to 25 km in depth  . The western point of the bridgehead - on the Voronka River - was the westernmost point of the USSR, not occupied by Wehrmacht troops.
In 1941, the forces of the 8th Army, together with the 2nd and 5th Marine Brigades , with the support of the coastal and naval artillery of the Baltic Fleet , stopped the offensive of the German forces trying to capture Leningrad at the turn of Kernovo , Lubanovo , Terentyevo , Gorlovo , Porzolovo , Peterhof where they created a stable defense. An attempt to counter direct communication with Leningrad in the Strelna-Peterhof operation on October 5-10 was unsuccessful in the counterattack of the 8th Army , the 42nd Army from Leningrad and the landing of naval landing in the Alexandria Park area.
After leaving the main forces of the 8th Army from the bridgehead to hold it on November 2, 1941, on the basis of the command of the 19th Rifle Corps , the Primorsky Front Operational Group (Major General A.N. Astanin ) was created consisting of:
- 48th Infantry Division . M. I. Kalinina,
- 2nd and 5th Marine Brigades,
- united school of coastal and air defense of the Baltic Fleet and other parts.
Subsequently, the 168th and 98th infantry divisions and other units were transferred to the Oranienbaum bridgehead. The Baltic Fleet supported the ground forces on the bridgehead with naval and coastal artillery fire, transporting troops and cargo. The bridgehead was held until the beginning of the offensive and the unification of Soviet troops in mid-January 1944.
Thanks to the Oranienbaum bridgehead, Soviet forces managed to maintain control over part of the Gulf of Finland adjacent to Leningrad , create tension in the rear of German troops and preserve the historical heritage of Oranienbaum .
Operation “ January Thunder ” (“ Neva-2 ”) began with the Oranienbaum Piglet.
From December 1942 to December 1943, the troops of the bridgehead were commanded by Lieutenant General V.Z. Romanovsky , replaced by Lieutenant General I.I. Fedyuninsky , under whose leadership a successful offensive operation was carried out to break through the enemy’s defensive line, to free Gostilitsy , Ropsha , Red The village and the further advancement of Soviet troops.
Monuments of the Oranienbaum Pig
|UNESCO World Heritage Site , Object No. 540-036c|
Russian • English • fr.
A significant proportion of the monuments of the Oranienbaum bridgehead are part of the Green Belt of Glory memorial complex, created on the initiative of M. A. Dudin . Among them:
- “ Seaside Memorial ” - is located in Old Peterhof a few hundred meters west of the Petrodvorets watch factory .
- “Attack” - a memorial, a tank on a concrete pedestal, 8 km of the Gostilitsky highway .
- Anchor is a memorial located on the 10th km of the Gostilitsky highway.
- “January Thunder” - a memorial at the site of the start of the offensive operation “January Thunder” , 19 km of the Gostilitsky highway, Porozhki tract.
- “Gostilitsky” - a memorial in the village of Gostilitsy (25 km of Gostilitsky highway).
- “Far Frontier” is a memorial 5 km north of the village of Lopukhinka .
- “Coast of the Courageous” is a memorial near the Gulf of Finland near Kernovo .
Memorials not included in the Green Belt of Glory:
- The Martyshkin Memorial is located on the territory of the Martyshkino historic district of the city of Lomonosov .
- “Unconquered Height” - located on Mount Kolokolne ( Gostilitsy ), near which fierce battles were fought and on which, from January 1944, the command post of the commander of the Leningrad Front , Army General L. Govorov, was located .
- Memorial in the tract Pulman - installed at the mass grave of Soviet soldiers.
- Monument to partisans and fallen fellow countrymen - a monument in the village of Lopukhinka .
- Monument to the village of Gotobuzhi - on the right bank of the Voronka north of the village of Globitsa .
- Monument to the defenders of the Leningrad sky - the village of Lebyazhye .
- Monument to the village of Luzhki-Upper
- Monument to the village of Luzhki-Srednye
- Monument to the village of Luzhki-Lower
- Monument to the village of Korovino - on the 14th km of the Gostilitsky highway
- Monument to the villages of Ust-Ruditsa and Lower Ruditsa
- Monument to the village of Tentelevo
- Monument to the village of Lomonosovo
- A commemorative sign in memory of the village of Tyunelyovo and the feat of political instructor Sukhanov I.K.  - on the 6th km of the Gostilitsky highway.
- Monument to the defenders of the Oraniembaum bridgehead - a monument in the place of the former village of Elizavetino on the Voronka River
|Russian-language map of the Oranienbaum bridgehead. |
- Military objects - Radio compass / [under the total. ed. N.V. Ogarkova ]. - M .: Military Publishing House of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR , 1978. - P. 83. - ( Soviet Military Encyclopedia : [in 8 vols.]; 1976-1980, vol. 6).
- Information about the monument on the website of the Red Army
- Local historian (FotosergS) - “Oranienbaum bridgehead September 1941 - January 1944” on Yandex.Fotki . fotki.yandex.ru. Date of treatment January 23, 2014.
- Oranienbaum bridgehead // Military objects - Radio compass / [under the general. ed. N.V. Ogarkova ]. - M .: Military Publishing House of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR , 1978. - ( Soviet Military Encyclopedia : [in 8 vols.]; 1976-1980, vol. 6).
- Oranienbaum bridgehead // The Great Patriotic War, 1941-1945 : encyclopedia / ed. M. M. Kozlova . - M .: Soviet Encyclopedia , 1985. - S. 512. - 500 000 copies.
- Gusarov A.Yu. Oranienbaum. Three centuries of history. - SPb, 2011 .-- ISBN 978-5-93437-329-1 .
- Gusarov A.Yu. Monuments of military glory of St. Petersburg. - SPb, 2010. - ISBN 978-5-93437-363-5 .
- Yu. A. Druzhnikov. On the Izhora hill. Travel Guide for tourists.
- Gorbatenko S. B. Peterhof Road. Historical and architectural guide. - St. Petersburg, 2002.
- Zhuravlev V.V., Mityurin D.V., Sachs K. B. Outpost of St. Petersburg. Three centuries of the military history of Oranienbaum-Lomonosov. - St. Petersburg, 2011 .-- ISBN 978-5-903984-26-8 .
- Zhuravlev V.V., Ulyanochkin K. B. Streets of Oranienbaum. Directory. - St. Petersburg: Administration of the city of Lomonosov, 2014. - ISBN 978-5-4386-0625-3.
- Oranienbaum bridgehead on the site "Encyclopedia of St. Petersburg"
- The role of the Oranienbaum bridgehead and its forts in the defense of Leningrad
- The fight for the Seaside bridgehead
- Fragments of memoirs of the commander Fedyuninsky
- Photos of monuments made by Vladimir Mitkovsky
- Leningrad. Blockade. Feat.
- Oranienbaum bridgehead. Map
- Memoirs of a veteran, chronology of events, video interview