Pedro II ( port. Pedro II ; , or - , ) - Regent in the years 1668-1683, then the king of Portugal from 1683. The fourth son of the King of Portugal, João IV and Louise de Guzmán .
Pedro was the youngest son of João IV and received the title of Duke Bej. After the death of his father, his mother Louise de Guzmán became regent at the new King Afonso VI , elder brother Pedro, partially paralyzed and mentally unbalanced. In 1662, Afonso removed the mother from the regency and took over the government. In January 1668, shortly before the Spaniards recognized the restoration of Portugal’s independence, Pedro was appointed regent of Afonso VI and soon sent him into exile in the Azores . After the death of Afonso in 1683, Pedro inherited the throne.
In 1669 Holland recognized Brazil as a Portuguese colony. Soon there were discovered Geraezskie gold mines , Pedro brought huge wealth. This allowed the king to significantly strengthen his absolute power and less and less convene the Cortes .
According to chroniclers, Pedro II was tall, well built, with dark eyes and dark hair.
In February 1668, he ended the twenty-seven-year war with Spain with lucrative peace. The latter recognized the independence of Portugal.
Pedro initially supported France and Spain in the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714), but on May 16, 1703, Portugal and Great Britain signed the Treaty of Methuen . This trade agreement negotiated reciprocal trade privileges for Portuguese wine and English textiles and later gave Britain a significant influence on the Portuguese economy. This was followed in December 1703 by a military alliance between Portugal, Austria and Great Britain, directed against Spain. Portuguese and allied forces under the command of the Marquis de Minach captured Madrid in 1706 during a campaign that ended with the defeat of the Allies at Almansa .
Pedro II died on December 9, 1706, and was succeeded by his son, João V.
Pedro not only inherited the throne of his brother, but also in 1668 married his ex-wife (her previous marriage was annulled), Queen Maria Francis of Savoy-Nemursk (1646–1683), which greatly contributed to the coup. He had one daughter from Mary.
Widowed in the year of his coronation in 1683, Pedro married the second time in 1687 to Maria Sophia of Neuburg (1666-1699), the daughter of Elector Philippe Wilhelm of Palatine-Neuburg , who was younger than him by 18 years. Her sisters were married to the Spanish king Charles II and the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, Leopold I.
|Picture||Name||Date of Birth||Date of death||Notes|
|From Maria Francis of Savoy-Nemur|
|Isabella Louise||January 6, 1669||October 21, 1690||3rd Princess Beira. Died unmarried.|
|From Maria Sofia Neuburg|
|August 30, 1688||September 17, 1688||Prince of Brazil and 12th Duke of Bragança. He died in infancy.|
|Juan||October 22, 1689||July 31, 1750||Prince of Brazil since 1697; the future king of Portugal, João V.|
|Francisco||May 25, 1691||July 21, 1742||Duke of Beja, Constable of Portugal, Grand Prior Krato, Prior of the Knights of Malta.|
|March 15, 1695||October 20, 1757||He was not married. No legitimate heirs left.|
|February 24, 1696||February 16, 1704||She died in childhood.|
|August 3, 1697||August 3, 1766||Count Ouren, candidate for the Polish throne in 1733.|
|Francis Joseph||January 30, 1699||July 15, 1736||Died unmarried.|
|From the connection with Maria da Cruz Mascagnayash|
|January 9, 1679||December 23, 1732||The wife of Duke Luis Ambrosio di Cavadal, and after his death - Jaime di Cavadal , brother of Luis.|
|From the connection with Anne-Marie de Verge|
|October 15, 1699||January 13, 1724||Duke of Lafonies.|
|From communication with Francisco Clara da Silva|
|Jose||May 6, 1703||June 3, 1756||Archbishop of Braga in 1741–1756.|
- Sousa, António Caetano de. História genealógica da Casa Real portuguesa (in Portuguese) VII. Lisbon: Silviana.