An inflatable boat - a watercraft , is an inflatable structure for swimming on the surface of the water. A simple and popular solution for traveling on water over short distances.
Often used when hunting and fishing , relaxing on the water . A boat with an awning - an inflatable liferaft , is included in the equipment of almost all vessels.
In military service, inflatable motor boats are used for amphibious assaults and secret diversionary sorties.
Inflatable rubber boats appeared in the 19th century . In the 1840s, Peter Halkett designed a boat of his own original design for British explorers in the Arctic .
Currently, for the production of inflatable boats, synthetic ( polymer ) fabric is most often used, which surpasses rubber in its operational properties. The boats made of rubber and "tent" fabrics were replaced by inflatable boats made of special boat fabric based on reinforced polyvinyl chloride . The boats are made of high-quality PVC fabric - oil-, petrol-, wear-resistant and not subject to ultraviolet radiation. In modern models of inflatable boats, a five-layer fabric is used, consisting of one reinforcing layer, two sealing layers and two protective layers. The weight density of the fabric varies from 750 g / m 2 for small rowing boats to 1100 g / m 2 or more for motor boats with a length of 360 cm.
According to their use cases, they are divided into general-use boats (amateur) and special-purpose boats (patrol-rescue, army, etc.).
According to the propulsion class they are divided into rowing and motor boats. In some models of rowing boats, a mounted (removable) transom is provided , allowing the installation of a low-power outboard motor .
Structurally divided into:
- flat-bottomed shale boats;
- boats with collapsible floorboards and an inflatable keel ;
- low pressure inflatable boats;
- boats with an inflatable rigid bottom (with an “insert”) ( English air desk );
- rigid hull boats with inflatable balloons ( English rigid-hulled inflatable boat, RHIB ).
Flat-bottom inflatable boats are characterized by the smallest weight and dimensions of the transport bag, the minimum time for putting into working condition. Minimum rigidity is given to the bottom by slan (flooring) made of waterproof plywood . The rectangular elements of the flooring are mounted in the fabric grooves provided for this on the inside of the bottom.
In boats with a rigid bottom (collapsible floor ), an additional balloon is used, located longitudinally between the floor and the inside of the fabric bottom. The air pressure in this tank gives the bottom of the boat keeled , which makes it more comfortable when moving in planing mode. Floorboards are made of waterproof plywood or anodized aluminum. There are three types of flooring: folding, hard with an n-shaped profile and hard with stringers. [one]
On boats with a low-pressure inflatable bottom, the bottom in design is the same cylinder as the airborne ones. Air is pumped into it at the same pressure as in the side cylinders (usually 0.25 kg / cm 2 ). Bringing such a boat into working condition, as a rule, takes a little time and depends on the compressor performance.
On boats with an inflatable rigid bottom, instead of flooring, a flooring (liner) is made of a special material with transverse fibers ( English double wall ). Air is injected into this liner at a sufficiently high pressure (about 1 kg / cm 2 , pressure in the cylinders is usually maintained at 0.25 kg / cm 2 ). The weight of such boats, the time for putting into working condition and the rigidity of the bottom is less than that of boats with payols.
Boats with a rigid hull and inflatable balloons around the perimeter of the boat (with the exception of the stern) are distinguished by the best seaworthiness characteristics. In fact, this is a hybrid of an inflatable boat and a boat with an all-plastic hull. Cylinders protect the boat from capsizing in turns and keep the boat afloat when moving in a displacement mode. When gliding, the boat comes into contact with water only on the stern surface of the bottom due to the lifting force arising at high speed.
- In 1952, the French doctor and amateur sailor Alain Bombard , alone in 65 days, crossed the Atlantic Ocean in an inflatable motor boat.
- Inflatable boats with a carrying capacity of more than 225 kg belong to small boats and are subject to mandatory registration (since May 25, 2012 the rules for registering water transport have changed - now ships with a weight of up to 200 kg and an engine capacity of up to 8 kW are not registered  )
- Water tourism
- The saving end of Aleksandrov
- Life saving carrot
- Life vest
- Banana (attraction)
- A.N. Korolev, V.P. Zhokhov . Inflatable boat