Ivan Zakharovich Ershov (1777, Moscow - 1852, p. Aleshna, Bolkhovsky district , Oryol province ) - Russian general, participant in the Napoleonic Wars .
|Ivan Zakharovich Ershov|
Portrait of Ivan Zakharovich Ershov
workshop  of George Dow . Military Gallery of the Winter Palace , State Hermitage Museum ( St. Petersburg )
|Date of Birth||December 27, 1771|
|Place of Birth|
|Date of death||January 18, 1852 (aged 80)|
|Place of death|
|Type of army||cavalry|
|Commanded||Cavalier Guard Life Guards Regiment , 2nd Brig. 4th dragoon. div., 2nd brig. 1st dragoon. div., 2nd brig. 2nd cuirassier. div., 2nd cuirassier. div|
|Battles / wars||War of the Second Coalition , War of the Fourth Coalition , Patriotic War of 1812 , War of the Sixth Coalition|
|Awards and prizes||Order of St. George 4th Art. (1812), Order of St. Anne , 2nd art. (1812), Order of St. Vladimir , 3rd art. (1812), Pur le Merit (1813), Kulm Cross .|
Born December 27, 1777  in Moscow , came from the noblemen of the Oryol province . Remaining a minor orphan under the care of his uncle, he studied at the Moscow hostel Bartoli. Recorded by the non-commissioned officer in the Life Guards Horse Regiment , he was promoted to cornet of the Sumy hussar regiment on January 27, 1797, and in 1799, as part of the Rimsky-Korsakov corps, took part in the Swiss campaign .
Transferred to the Cavaliergard Regiment in 1801, Ershov participated in the 1807 campaign , including the battles of Heilsberg , Guttshdadt and Fridland . June 24, 1809 was promoted to colonel.
In World War II, Ershov, commanding a reserve squadron of the Cavalierguard Regiment, was appointed to the composite cuirassier regiment, under Count Wittgenstein’s corps, and on August 6 in the battle of Polotsk launched a brilliant attack on the battery with the cuirassier’s division, capturing 15 guns, for which he was awarded on September 4 Order of St. George 4th degree (No. 2424 according to the list of Grigorovich - Stepanov and No. 1057 according to the list of Sudravsky)
|In retaliation for the zealous service and distinction given to the campaign against the French troops in 1812, in the battle of Polotsk on August 5 and 6, where, with the squadron of the Cavalier Guard regiment, reinforcing the riflemen, he forced the enemy column to retreat and acted with great dauntlessness when taking the battery.|
Participating then in the capture of Polotsk and in the battles of Chashniki , Smolyany , Lukoml and Berezin , he was awarded the orders of St. Anne of the 2nd degree, St. 3rd degree Vladimir and diamonds to the Order of St. Anne of the 2nd degree. At the beginning of 1813, his standard squadron was granted to his squadron with the inscription: "3a difference in the defeat and expulsion of the enemy from the borders of Russia in 1812."
In 1813, Ershov took command of the cavalry guards and at the head of them participated in foreign campaigns and battles at Lutsen , Bautzen , Dresden and Kulm and was promoted to major general for military distinctions on September 15 (with seniority from August 17, 1813). Then sent to the Polish army, Ershov, being in the detachment of General Chaplits , participated in the blockade of Modlin and Hamburg .
Appointed in 1815 as the commander of the 2nd Brigade of the 4th Dragoon Division, he was transferred in 1817 to the same position in the 1st Dragoon Division and then in 1821 to the 2nd Cuirassier Division. March 29, 1825 Ershov was appointed head of the 2nd cuirassier division and on August 22 of the following year was promoted to lieutenant general. On December 19, 1827 he was enrolled in the cavalry, and on December 16, 1833 he was dismissed from service with a uniform and full salary. Among other awards he had the Prussian Order of Pur le Merit and the Kulm Cross .
In 1851, he and his son Ivan were brought to trial on charges of defamation of the former Kaluga governor N.M.Smirnov (husband of A.O. Rosset ), as a result of a complaint in the case of the sale by Ivan Zakharovich Ershov of his estate to the wife of the guard captain Rosset. Without waiting for the verdict, on January 18, 1852, Ershov died in his village Aleshn of the Bolkhovsky district of the Oryol province. He was buried in Moscow at the cemetery of the Donskoy Monastery .
Marriage and children
Wife (since 1804) - Evdokia Semenovna Zhegulin (11/ 02 /1783-1863), daughter of Major General Semen Semenovich Zhegulin , the last governor of the Tauride Region . In 1800 she was released from the Smolny Institute . She was known as a beauty in society, played the piano and sang beautifully. Was a noticeable special at the court of Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich. Later she loved to remember the past and tell various interesting cases and jokes. M. M. Molchanov, who saw her in the Crimea in 1848, wrote about her  :
|She was an old lady, but enjoyed excellent health. Preserving her health and bodily strengths, she retained all her good spirits and her whole bright mind, and what is more important, her constantly cheerful, undisturbed calm mood. She led an extremely secluded life, in the sense that she almost never went anywhere, but had a circle of close friends who remained faithful to her until her departure to Moscow, just before the start of the Crimean War.|
In her house in Simferopol almost every evening she arranged musical evenings, where music lovers and close friends gathered. Foreign artists considered it a duty to introduce themselves to such a music lover as Ershov was known. She visited the composer A. N. Serov , pianists Shulgof , Seymour Schiff, Leshetitsky and violinist Svechin. She had two sons in marriage:
- Ivan Ivanovich (1806–1864), a retired colonel, was put on trial together with his father in 1851, was found guilty of defamation of N. M. Smirnov, and sentenced to 6 months in prison by the Senate, from which he was released since was forgiven by Smirnov. He died in Moscow and was buried next to his father in the Donskoy Monastery. In marriage with Princess Varvara Vyazemskaya had sons Vladimir and Sergey (1856-1869).
- Nikolai Ivanovich (1811-1875), married to Elizabeth Sergeevna Mikhalkova (d. 1896).
- State Hermitage Museum. Western European painting. Catalog / Ed. V. F. Levinson-Lessing; ed. A. E. Krol , K. M. Semenova. - 2nd edition, revised and supplemented. - L .: Art, 1981. - T. 2. - S. 257, cat. No. 8066. - 360 p.
- In many sources, the year of birth of Ershov is indicated incorrectly, they are called 1771 and 1781. The date 1777 should be considered true, as indicated in Ershov’s own track record.
- A. S. Serov in the memoirs of an old jurist // Russian Old Man. 1883.Vol. 39 .-- S. 352-353.
- Ershov, Ivan Zakharovich // Military Encyclopedia : [in 18 vol.] / Ed. V.F. Novitsky [et al.]. - SPb. ; [ M. ]: t-va I. D. Sytin , 1911-1915.
- Dictionary of Russian generals, participants in the hostilities against the army of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1812-1815. // Russian archive. The history of the Fatherland in the evidence and documents of the XVIII — XX centuries. : Collection. - M .: TRITE studio N. Mikhalkova , 1996. - T. VII . - S. 390-391 . - ISSN 0869-20011 . (Comm. A. A. Podmazo )