Mont Blanc ( French: Mont Blanc , Italian: Monte Bianco , literally “white mountain”) is a crystalline massif with a height of 4810 m (the highest point in Europe, provided that the border of Europe and Asia is drawn along the northern border of the Caucasus ). Located in the Western Alps , part of the Alps mountain system. Located on the border of France and Italy in the Upper Savoy and Courmayeur areas. The highest point of the Alps and Europe, excluding the Caucasus peaks. The length is about 50 km. The area of glaciation is more than 200 km², a large glacier Mer de Glace . Mountaineering and mountaineering center - Tour du Mont Blanc , a popular European hiking trail, runs around Mont Blanc .
|fr. Mont Blanc , Ital. Monte bianco|
The south side of Mont Blanc.
|Highest peak||Mont Blanc|
|Highest point||4810  m|
|Regions||Auvergne - Rhone - Alps , Valle d'Aosta|
Under the Mont Blanc, an automobile tunnel has been laid 11.6 km long, connecting France and Italy. The passage through the tunnel is paid. The fare depends on the side of entry, the type of vehicle and the number of rides.
At the western foot of Mont Blanc, on the French side, is the famous Chamonix ski resort. At the south, on the Italian side, is Courmayeur .
After the French Revolution , extensive debate over Mont Blanc's ownership took place. Previously, the entire mountain was considered as part of the Duchy of Savoy , and since 1723 - the Kingdom of Sardinia , one of the unitary Italian states. After Napoleon’s victories in Italy, the Duchy of Piedmont was forced to cede Savoy and Nice to France. After the Napoleonic Wars and the French occupation, after the Congress of Vienna , the king of Sardinia regained control of Savoy, Nice and Piedmont, in their traditional territories. But the Paris Peace Treaty (1815) was already inaccurate at that time (1815) . Forty-five years later, after the Second Italian War of Independence, it was replaced by a new legal act. This act was signed in Turin on March 24, 1860. It was signed by Napoleon III and Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy , the case concerned the annexation of Savoy (after the French agreement on French non-intervention during the plebiscites held in Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna to join the Kingdom of Sardinia, against the will of the pope). For the first time, with the consent of the king of Sardinia, Mont Blanc is located on the border with France. The demarcation agreement, signed on March 7, 1861 defines the mountain as a “new frontier”  .
Currently, this act and the attached cards are valid for both the French and Italian governments. One of the prints from Sarde Atlas, made in 1823, defines the border along the very top edge of the mountain (4804 m in height). The Convention of March 7, 1861 recognizes this through the attached map, taking into account the limits of the array. A drawing of the border passing over the Mont Blanc ice sheet is given in French and Italian. Analysis of the watershed of modern topographic maps not only sets the border on the main peaks, but also shows that the border should follow the line north from the main peak to Mont Modi , leaving the southeast ridge of Mont Blanc de Courmayeur completely under Italian control. Despite the fact that the Franco-Italian border was revised in 1947 and 1963 , the commission, which consisted of two Italians and a French representative, ignored the question of Mont Blanc's affiliation.
The de facto mountain is divided between the Italian city of Courmayeur and the French city of Saint-Gervais-les-Bains , although most are in the commune of the latter  .
The first mention of climbing Mont Blanc, by Jacques Balm and Dr. Michel Packard , is dated August 8, 1786 . This climb was initiated by Horace Benedict Saussure , who established a prize for those who are exploring the way to climb Mont Blanc. The first woman to reach the summit was Maria Paradis in 1808 . Future President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt also led an ascent expedition during his honeymoon in 1886 .
Mont Blanc Peaks
- Mont Blanc (4810 m)
- Mont Blanc de Courmayeur (4748 m)
- Rocher de la Turmet (4677 m)
- Grand Bos (4,547 m)
- Petit Bos (4513 m)
- Mont Modi (4465 m)
- Peak of Louis Amadeus (4460 m)
- Aiguille Belle Etoile (4354 m)
- Dom du Goute (4304 m)
- Mont Blanc du Tacul (4248 m)
- Grand Pilliers d'Angle (4243 m)
- Grand Jorace (4208 m)
- Aiguille-Werth (4122 m)
- Aiguille Blanche de Piotre (4112 m)
- Aiguille de Bionnasse (4052 m)
- Dan du Jean (4013 m)
- Baretti Peak (4013 m)
- Python de Italien (4002 m)
- Aiguille du Midi (3842 m)
Mont Blanc in Culture
In the poem "Stingy, the fate of talent ..." (1855), Prince P. A. Vyazemsky wrote about his European impressions:
- I have not seen, even from the window,
- Picturesque Mont Blanc -
- Mountains of the king and the giant.
- He hid inside the fog:
- The king has no reception.
- And your poet doesn’t know
- Like climbing proudly
- On the throne of silver
- God's created wonder
- The White Mountain sparkles.
- Picturesque Mont Blanc -
- November 3, 1950 - Disaster Lockheed L-749A Constellation airline Air India , killing 48 people
- January 24, 1966 - the crash of a Boeing 707 airline Air India , killing 117 people.
- March 24, 1999 - a truck caught fire in a tunnel under Mont Blanc, smoke quickly spread through the tunnel, engines of the cars in the tunnel (including firefighters who had left for the scene of the accident) stalled due to lack of oxygen. The fire raged for 53 hours. Killed 39 people.
- Mont Blanc on French IGN map portal
- Places to visit around Mont Blanc
- Indepth guide to Mont Blanc
- Mont-Blanc summit webcam : Close up of the summit of the Mont Blanc and its glaciers at 4811m.
- Mont-Blanc panoramic webcam : See severals points of view of the Mont-Blanc range and zoom on the top.
- Mont blanc on peakware
- Mont blanc on summitpost
- Descent into the Ice Companion website to the PBS NOVA program which follows a glaciologist and a climber into the glacier caves of Mont Blanc
- Chamonix-mont-blanc map
- The scientific observatories on Mont Blanc.