Artificial stone is a generic name for some types of industrial products, which are an imitation of natural stone :
- various types of synthetic stone products, based on polyester resins and natural stone crumb filler,
- claddings made of colored concrete with surface relief and color close to natural stone,
- artificial acrylic stone .
Synthetic products are mainly used as surface parts of furniture for various purposes (table covers, bar counters, window sills ), plumbing products ( sinks , etc.), for decorative purposes ( decor elements, up to sculptures ), and also as a facade cladding of buildings.
Artificial stone made of colored concrete is used for decorating and cladding surfaces of buildings and structures, as well as for interior decoration of premises.
Artificial stone materials appeared in ancient India, China and Egypt (another 3000 years BC), created using binders - gypsum and lime. In the 3rd century BC e. in the construction of several sections of the Great Wall of China, a kind of artificial material was used, reminiscent of modern concrete in composition.
The technology for the production of baked clay bricks with the addition of straw as a reinforcing material is mentioned in the Bible .
In the Middle Ages, craftsmen began adding crumbs of natural materials (granite, dolomite, sandstone, etc.) to the concrete solution, which allowed this material to imitate natural stones and increased strength. The artificial stone "Coad" ( English Coade stone ), was created using ceramic firing . In the future, the technology of creating artificial stone has repeatedly changed and improved. In ancient Hellas, artificial stone made from concrete, which was poured into wooden or iron forms, spread. Such a stone was much cheaper and more convenient to use than a regular one. For engineering projects, this had a number of advantages: delivering material for artificial stone and making it on the spot was much more profitable than transporting the finished stone. The Victoria stone was also widely used, which consisted of finely crushed granite from Mount Sorrel ( Leicestershire , Engl. Mountsorrel ) and Portland cement , carefully mixed in an automated way in three to one proportions and laid in templates of the desired shape. When cement was poured into molds, they were very unstable, and they were buried in silicate sand for two weeks in order to harden and strengthen the physical properties of the stone. Many manufacturers began to produce this material, since it is practically non-porous and is able to effectively withstand the corrosive effects of sea air or the polluted atmosphere of large cities. The famous French architect Viollet-le-Duc, Eugene, when restoring Carcassonne, used blocks of artificial stone imitating natural sandstone. It was used by the architect Gaudi to decorate the facades of houses in Barcelona . The stage of development of artificial stone was the invention of polymers based on concrete, where various polymer resins were used as a binder (epoxy, phenol-formaldehyde). Mineral fillers and coloring pigments were added to polymer concrete. In 1963, the American concern DuPont patented its innovative technological development - finishing Artificial stone: A similar Cast Stone artificial stone manufacturing technology was created by Architectural Concrete Co. Inc. with the TannerStone brand name. was purchased by American businessmen, and artificial stone, made with its use, it was launched in the US and then in Europe in mass production.
In the first years after the Second World War in European countries there was an urgent need for the restoration of destroyed buildings - as soon as possible, and with maximum cost savings. This was especially true for architectural monuments.
Starting from the middle of the 19th century, decorative elements made of artificial stone began to be used in the restoration of ancient monuments, buildings and structures of great cultural and social significance. Currently, artificial stone has become widespread in the construction of residential buildings and public buildings.
Modern Artificial Stone
Modern artificial stone is a material that allows you to simulate a cut of natural stone during masonry. This is an excellent substitute for natural limestone and sandstone (this variety is also called Archkamen ( Cast stone ), granite, slate , coral rock, travertine and other natural stones during construction.
Artificial stone can be made of white or gray cement, artificial or natural sand, carefully selected crushed stone or natural gravel of high quality with the addition of mineral coloring pigments , allowing to achieve the desired color and texture without loss of physical properties.
Modern artificial stone, created on the basis of various concretes (the so-called "white stone"), can have internal spatial reinforcement, increasing the load-bearing and strength characteristics of the material.
One of the most progressive types of concrete reinforcement in the manufacture of artificial stone is fiber reinforcement. The most common fiber for concrete:
- alkali-resistant fiberglass
- ordinary fiberglass
- from synthetic fibers.
Aged artificial stone
Modern restoration architecture uses new materials with the effect of aging (the so-called "architectural archeology"). In Russia, finishing facade elements are used from artificially aged modern material based on concrete (“white stone”), developed by n prof. Haritom M.D.
The features of this method include:
- the use of chemical additives (for example, S-3 superplasticizers, emulsions of organosilicon oligomers, air-entraining additives, etc.) to create specified physical and mechanical properties (strength, frost resistance, water resistance, density, specific gravity, etc.).
- introduction of soot and iron oxide into the molding composition to create a visual imitation of the “antiquity” of the material
- injections of biological preparations into the pores of the finished product to create vegetable duckweed and moss films on the surface.
- the use of colored cements and special fillers to give the desired color and shade.
- the use of special architectural forms and matrices to create the effect of hand-carved stone.
- sandblasting to give the product a “weather-weathered” appearance.
- Quartz Artificial Stone
- Banova N. N. et al. Issues of organizing low-rise construction in the field of building decoration. // Architectural and decorative elements for the protection of buildings and structures from natural and technological impacts. - M.: TsNIIS, 2009, p. 6-25
- Orlov G. G. et al. Organization of the production of small-sized decorative elements for the architectural design of individual residential development // Architectural and decorative elements to protect buildings and structures from natural and technological effects. - M.: TsNIIS, 2009, p. 25-34
- Harit M. D. The New Age of the Russian Estate. M, AST, 2006, ISBN 5170081200
- Harit OM. Production of facade elements using the White Stone technology // Construction Technologies. 2009, No. 7, p. 64-68
- Harit OM. Production of architectural decoration elements of buildings using modern materials and technologies // Construction Technologies. 2009, No. 6, p. 34-38
- Coade's Artificial Stone Works - Coade's Artificial Stone Works, Pages 58-61, Survey of London: Volume 23, Lambeth: South Bank and Vauxhall. Originally published by London County Council, London, 1951.
- Viollet-le-Duc. Dictionaries raisonné de l'architecture française du XI — XVI siècle. 1-9 Volumes. Blank and Morel. Paris, 1854-1868.