Oganeson   ( lat. Oganesson , Og), was previously known under the temporary names ununoctium ( lat. Ununoctium , Uuo) or eka-radon - a chemical element of the eighteenth group (according to the outdated classification - the main subgroup of the eighth group), the seventh of the period of the periodic system of chemical elements , the atomic number is 118. The most stable (and the only known one for 2016) is the nuclide 294 Og, whose half-life is estimated at 1 ms and the atomic mass is 294,214 (5) a. e. m.  Artificially synthesized radioactive element, does not occur in nature. The synthesis of Oganeson nuclei was first carried out in 2002 and 2005 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research ( Dubna )  in collaboration with the Livermore National Laboratory . The results of these experiments were published in 2006  . On November 28, 2016, the temporary systematic name “ununctii” and the temporary designation Uuo after formal confirmation of the discovery of the element were replaced by the permanent name “oganeson” and the designation Og (in honor of academician Yuri Tsolakovich Oganesyan ), proposed by the discoverers and approved by IUPAC  .
|← Tennessee | Ununny →|
|Name, symbol, number||Oganesson (Og), 118|
( molar mass )
| ( mass number of the most stable isotope) |
|Electronic configuration||[Rn] 5f 14 6d 10 7s 2 7p 6|
|Atom radius||(estimated) 152 pm|
|Covalent radius||(estimated) 230 pm|
|Oxidation state||−1  , 0, +1, +2, +4, +6|
|(calculated) 975 ± 155 kJ / mol ( eV )|
|Thermodynamic properties of a simple substance|
|Density (at N. at. )||(estimated) 4.9-5.1 g / cm³|
|Boiling temperature||(calculated) 350 ± 30 K, 80 ± 30 ° C|
|Beats heat of fusion||(estimated) 23.5 kJ / mol|
|Beats heat of vaporization||(estimated) 19.4 kJ / mol|
|5f 14 6d 10 7s 2 7p 6|
Nominally, the element belongs to inert gases , however, its physical and, possibly, chemical properties can probably differ greatly from the rest of the group. Oganeson completes the seventh period of the periodic table, although at the time of its opening, the previous, 117th cell of the table ( tennessin ) was still empty  .
- 1 Origin of the name
- 2 Discovery History
- 3 Getting
- 4 Physical properties
- 5 Chemical properties
- 6 Known Isotopes
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
According to the rules for naming new elements adopted in 2002, in order to ensure linguistic uniformity, all new elements must be given names ending in “-ium”  . However, in most languages, the names of the elements of the 18th group of the periodic system ( noble gases ), with the exception of helium , traditionally have the ending "-on": Neon - neon , Argon - argon , Krypton - krypton , Xenon - xenon , Radon - radon . Therefore, soon after the discovery of the 113th, 115th, 117th and 118th elements was recognized, the rules were amended according to which, according to the tradition accepted in the chemical nomenclature, elements of the 18th group should be given names ending in "-On"  .
American scientists, who mistakenly announced the discovery of the 118th element in 1999, intended to propose for it the name giorsey ( lat. Ghiorsium , Gh) in honor of Albert Gyorso  .
Soon after the discovery of the 118th element, unofficial proposals appeared to call it Muscovy (in honor of the Moscow region) or in honor of G. N. Flerov  . However, later the name “Muscovy” was officially proposed for the 115th element , and the 114th element was named after Flerov.
June 8, 2016 IUPAC recommended giving the element the name “ Oganesson ” ( Oganesson , Og)  in honor of Professor Yuri Tsolakovich Oganesyan (born in 1933 ), academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences , scientific director of the Nuclear Reactions Laboratory named after G. N. Flerova of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna , for his innovative contribution to the study of transactinoid elements. According to the IUPAC press release, many scientific achievements of Hovhannisyan include the discoveries of superheavy elements and significant achievements in the field of nuclear physics of superheavy nuclei, including experimental evidence of the island of stability  . The name “Oganeson” was presented to the scientific community for a 5-month discussion from June 8 to November 8, 2016. November 28, 2016 IUPAC approved the name "Oganeson" for the 118th element   . Thus, Oganeson became the second (after the seaborgium ) element, named after a living person  .
The first statement about the discovery of elements 116 and 118 in 1999 in Berkeley ( USA )  turned out to be erroneous and even falsified  . The cold fusion reaction of lead and krypton nuclei was used:
The synthesis according to the announced method was not confirmed at the Russian, German and Japanese centers for nuclear research, and then in the USA.
The first decay event of element 118 was observed in an experiment conducted at JINR in February – June 2002  .
On October 17, 2006, Russian and American nuclear physicists officially announced the receipt of the 118th element. Repeated synthesis experiments were carried out at the Dubna accelerator in February – June 2007 . As a result of the bombardment of a target from California by -249 by ions of the calcium isotope -48, two more nuclei of the atom of the 118th element ( 294 Og) were formed  .
December 30, 2015 IUPAC officially recognized the discovery of the 118th element and the priority in this of scientists from JINR and Livermore National Laboratory  .
Oganeson was a nuclear reaction
Oganeson, unlike lighter analogues, will be the first inert gas in the solid state under normal conditions, which gives it completely different physical properties  .
Therefore, although it nominally belongs to the group of inert gases, it will not be gas. With a little heating, it will easily melt and evaporate; its expected calculated boiling point is 80 ± 30 ° C (a fairly wide range due to variations in the influence of relativistic effects). Its melting point is unknown, however (by analogy with lighter elements) it is expected that it will be only slightly lower than the boiling point. About the same melting point as wax is wax .
Such a significant increase in the melting and boiling points of Oganeson compared to radon causes the relativistic effects of the 7p shell, in addition to a simple increase in atomic mass, which enhances the intermolecular interaction. However, Oganeson is assumed to be monatomic, although its tendency to form diatomic molecules is stronger than that of radon .
The calculated density in the solid state of Oganeson at the melting temperature is about 5 g / cm 3 . This is slightly higher than the density of radon in a liquefied state (at −62 ° C), which is 4.4 g / cm 3 . In the gaseous state, the Oganeson will look like radon: it is a heavy, colorless gas, slightly higher in density of the radon itself  .
Oganeson belongs to inert gases , having a complete 7 p- electron shell and a complete electronic configuration, which means its chemical inertness and zero default oxidation state  . However, compounds of heavy noble gases (starting from krypton ) with strong oxidizing agents (for example, fluorine or oxygen ) still exist, and as the sequence number increases, the electrons move away from the nucleus, so the ease of oxidation of an inert gas by strong oxidizing agents from krypton to radon increases. It is theoretically assumed that Oganeson will be somewhat more active than radon   . Its expected ionization energy of the first electron is 840 kJ / mol , which is significantly lower than radon ( 1036 kJ / mol ) and xenon ( 1170 kJ / mol ).
The rather low ionization energy of Oganeson and its other physical properties suggest that Oganeson, although it will be chemically inactive in comparison with most other elements, but in comparison with previous inert gases will be very chemically active.
If lighter analogues - xenon or krypton - required extremely severe conditions and the use of fluorine for oxidation, then Oganeson should be oxidized much more easily. It will be even more active than fleroviy and kopernitsy - the most inactive elements among superheavy elements.
With electronegative elements, Oganeson can relatively easily oxidize to two oxidation states - +2 and +4, and with fluorine Oganeson will form ionic rather than covalent compounds (for example, OgF 4 )  . Oganeson will be able to form, in contrast to lighter analogues, relatively stable compounds with less electronegative elements, for example, chlorine, nitrogen, or, possibly, other elements. Probably, it can be relatively easily oxidized by oxygen. A theoretical oxidation state of +1 is also possible. Perhaps strong acid oxidizing agents will also be able to oxidize oganesone to oxides or even convert it to a cation like a metal.
An oxidation state of +6 for Oganeson will also be possible, but it will be much less stable and require harsh conditions for the destruction of only 7 p- sublevels. Oganeson will probably be able to form the O2O2 acid H 2 OgO 4 (like xenon, which forms the xenonate acid H 2 XeO 4 ) and the salts of Oganeson, and all its compounds in oxidation state +6 will be very strong oxidizing agents.
Unlike xenon , the highest theoretical oxidation state of Oganeson +8 will not be possible due to the required extremely high energy for pairing 7 s electrons (as with other 7 p elements). Therefore, +6 will be the highest degree of oxidation of Oganeson.
Oganeson will also exhibit not only reducing properties, but also serve as an oxidizing agent for strong reducing agents, exhibiting an oxidation state of −1 due to the relativistic effects of subshells. Theoretically, inert gases cannot act as oxidizing agents, since all their electron shells are complete, however, in practice, Oganeson will be able to form salts with active metals - Oganesonides (for example, CsOg CsOg), acting as an oxidizing agent, showing some similarities with halogens .
|Isotope||Weight||Half life||Decay type||The number of recorded events|
|294 og||294||0.89 +1.07 |
−0.31 ms 
|α decay at 290 Lv||3|
- Meija J. et al. Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report ) // Pure and Applied Chemistry . - 2016. - Vol. 88, no. 3 . - P. 265–291. - DOI : 10.1515 / pac-2015-0305 .
- Haire, Richard G. Transactinides and the future elements // The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements. - 3rd. - Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Science + Business Media , 2006 .-- P. 1724. - ISBN 1-4020-3555-1 .
- Names of new chemical elements 113, 115, 117, and 118: Press release of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research . JINR (June 8, 2016). Date of treatment June 8, 2016.
- IUPAC approved the names of elements 113, 115, 117 and 118: Press release of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research . JINR (November 30, 2016). Date of treatment December 5, 2016.
- Wieser, M. E. Atomic weights of the elements 2005 (IUPAC Technical Report) (English) // Pure Appl. Chem. : journal. - 2006. - Vol. 78 , no. 11 . - P. 2051-2066 . - DOI : 10.1351 / pac200678112051 .
- Yu. Ts. Oganessian et al. Synthesis of the isotopes of elements 118 and 116 in the 249 Cf and 245 Cm + 48 Ca fusion reactions // Physical Review C. - 2006.- T. 74 , No. 4 . - S. 044602 .
- IUPAC Announces the Names of the Elements 113, 115, 117, and 118 . IUPAC (November 30, 2016). Date of treatment November 30, 2016.
- Grushina A. Biographies of new elements (Russian) // Science and Life . - 2017. - Issue. 1 . - S. 24-25 .
- Koppenol WH Naming of new elements (IUPAC Recommendations 2002 ) // Pure and Applied Chemistry. - 2002 .-- January ( vol. 74 , no. 5 ). - P. 787-791 . - ISSN 0033-4545 . - DOI : 10.1351 / pac200274050787 .
- Koppenol WH et al. How to name new chemical elements (IUPAC Recommendations 2016) (English) // Pure and Applied Chemistry. - 2016 .-- April ( vol. 88 , no. 4 ). - P. 401-405 . - ISSN 0033-4545 . - DOI : 10.1515 / pac-2015-0802 .
- Discovery of New Elements Makes Front Page News . Berkeley Lab Research Review Summer 1999 (1999). Date of treatment June 10, 2016.
- Emelyanova, Asya the 118th element will be called in Russian . vesti.ru (October 17, 2006). Date of treatment July 25, 2007. Archived December 25, 2008.
- Gubarev V. 118th - a new star in the horizon of physics // In the world of science . - 2017. - Issue. 1/2 . - S. 14-21 .
- Samples P. Ununctius became Oganeson (Rus.) // Science and Life . - 2017. - Issue. 1 . - S. 22-25 .
- Victor Kovylin. Oganeson - like a strange dream
- Ninov V. et al. Observation of Superheavy Nuclei Produced in the Reaction of 86 Kr with 208 Pb // Physical Review Letters . - 1999. - Vol. 83, No. 6 . - P. 1104-1107.
- Public Affairs Department. Results of element 118 experiment retracted ( link unavailable) . Berkeley Lab (21 July 2001). Date of treatment July 25, 2007. Archived on August 26, 2011.
- Yu. Ts. Oganessian et al. Results from the first 249 Cf + 48 Ca experiment // JINR Communication: Preprint D7-2002-287. - JINR, Dubna, 2002.
- Discovery and Assignment of Elements with Atomic Numbers 113, 115, 117 and 118 . IUPAC (December 30, 2015). Date of treatment December 31, 2015.
- Eichler, R. & Eichler, B., Thermochemical Properties of the Elements Rn, 112, 114, and 118 , Paul Scherrer Institut , < http://lch.web.psi.ch/files/anrep03/06.pdf > . Retrieved October 23, 2010. Archived July 7, 2011 on Wayback Machine
- Nash CS, Crockett WW An Anomalous Bond Angle in (116) H 2 . Theoretical Evidence for Supervalent Hybridization (Eng.) // The Journal of Physical Chemistry A. - 2006. - Vol. 110 , iss. 14 . - P. 4619–4621 . - DOI : 10.1021 / jp060888z .
- Grosse AV Some physical and chemical properties of element 118 (Eka-Em) and element 86 (Em) (Eng.) // Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry. - 1965. - Vol. 27 , iss. 3 . - P. 509-519 . - DOI : 10.1016 / 0022-1902 (65) 80255-X .
- Ununoctium: Binary Compounds . WebElements Periodic Table. Date of treatment January 18, 2008.
- Fricke B. Superheavy elements: a prediction of their chemical and physical properties (Eng.) // Recent Impact of Physics on Inorganic Chemistry. - 1975 .-- P. 89-144 . - DOI : 10.1007 / BFb0116498 .
- Han Y.-K., Lee YS Structures of RgFn (Rg = Xe, Rn, and Element 118. n = 2, 4.) Calculated by Two-component Spin-Orbit Methods. A Spin-Orbit Induced Isomer of (118) F 4 (Eng.) // Journal of Physical Chemistry A. - 1999. - Vol. 103 , iss. 8 . - P. 1104-1108 . - DOI : 10.1021 / jp983665k .
- Oganeson on Webelements
- Hovhanneson in the journal What's New in Science and Technology
- Oganeson on the website of Minatom
- Oganeson in a press review of the Inopress website
- On the synthesis of an element on the JINR website
- Scientists from Russia and the United States received two ununctium atoms (118 elements), Lenta.ru, 10/17/2006.