Michal Grabowski (pol. Michał Grabowski ; pseudonym Edward Tarsha , Edward Tarsza ) (September 25, 1804 in Zlotyow (Volhynia) - November 17, 1863 in Warsaw) - Polish writer, critic, Ukrainian philosopher .
|Date of Birth||September 25, 1804|
|Place of Birth|
|Date of death||November 17, 1863 (59 years old)|
|Place of death||Warsaw|
|Language of Works|
At first he studied at the Jesuit school in Romanov; later at the basilian school in Uman . At the end of his studies in Uman, he went to Warsaw , where he became close to a circle of romantics. Already in his first articles, he pointed out that the significance of Polish romantic poetry is rooted in the pure source of its nationality. In 1834, Grabowski published an article on folk poetry, which was a huge success. Since that time, G.'s importance as a literary critic has grown. The greatest fame was achieved by G. in the printing (1837-1838) of the first two volumes of Literatura i krytyka, devoted to poetry of the 19th century, Ukrainian songs and new French literature. Other compositions, including On szkole ukraińskiej poezyi, were somewhat less successful.
Since the mid-30s, Mr .. G. adjoins the conservative camp of Catholic reaction, declares war on skepticism of the XVIII century., Recognizes the aristocracy necessary in the life of the people, draws closer to the editors of the official body "Tyg. Petersburg. ". Polish society did not like the Ukrainian sympathies of G., as well as the whole “Ukrainian school” with its local, “dungeon” patriotism, which Mickiewicz , Krashevsky and others rebelled against. In 1841 , the new Polish critic A. Tyshinsky pointed out that many opinions G., which were considered original, essentially borrowed from Wilman and Guizot . This led to the loss of G.'s popularity, especially among young people, who had already begun to get carried away with Hegelian philosophy and contemptuously called G. empiricist . Since that time, G.’s critical productivity has fallen, although he continues to publish his articles in Tygodnik Petersburski and Pielgrzym (separately published Korrespondencya literacka, 1843, and Artykuły literackie, krytyczne i artystyczne, 1848).
Closer and closer to Ukrainian figures in Kiev , Grabovsky is imbued with Ukrainian-philosophical ideas about the great pan-Slavic significance of Kiev and expresses the conviction that the “Ukrainian people” are a separate branch of the Russian people, preserving their original tribal features and originality. Under the same influences that permeated the famous " Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood " of Kostomarov and Shevchenko , Grabovsky seeks to become an apostle of Slavic unity. He wants to publish the newspaper Słowianin in Kiev in the panslavistic direction, and for this purpose presents a detailed program for the future publication to the Kiev Governor-General. She became known to Polish society and aroused general indignation in the Polish environment; G.'s former friends recoiled from him.
From this time, the rapprochement of G. with Kulish begins, on which Grabowski had a strong influence. Grabowski was convinced that all the accusations of the Polish lords in the oppression of the Ukrainian people were greatly exaggerated, and that in reality the Polish landowners were the inhabitants of higher culture in Ukraine and created its well-being. Ukrainians themselves are to blame for the horrors of the Cossack wars; the best heroes of Ukraine, such as, for example, Sagaidachny and others, lived in peace with the Poles; Polish rule was not difficult because it was tempered by religion and the demands of enlightenment. Slavery (poddaństwo) had a peculiar character in Ukraine; it was neither a French servage, nor a German Leibeigenschaft, nor even a Russian serfdom; it was a kind of police custody. The Polish government was to vigorously oppose the robbers and Haidamaks . From this point of view, peasant unrest at the end of the 18th century in Ukraine caused complete censure by Grabovsky, shared by Kulish (“On the causes of hostility between Poles and Ukrainians”, an article by Kulish and Grabovsky in “Zap. On South Russia”, St. Petersburg, 1857. Compare the novel by G. “Zamieć w stepach” (P., 1862). Grabowski also wrote fiction. The first novel by Grabowski, “Koliszczyzna i stepy” (1838), was published in two editions (2nd under the title “Opowiadania Kurennego” , 1860). The second story, "Stannica Hulajpolska" (1840-1841), written under the strong influence of Walter Scott, gives a picture of morals and Ichayev of Ukraine and the mutual relations of Poles and Cossacks, “claps” and lords at the end of the 18th century. Later stories: “Pan starosta Kaniowski” (1856), “Pan starosta Zakrzewski” (1860) and “Zamieć w stepach” (1862). In 1862, Grabovsky received an invitation from the Marquis of Velepolsky to take a prominent place in the "Commission for Public Education and Religion," and in 1863 he took the place of director in it, but died two months later (November 17, 1863). Critical judgments Grabowski highly substantiated and labels. He first defined the meaning of many Polish writers, the first formulated definitely the principle of nationality in literature.
In Kiev, Mikhail Grabovsky lived on St. Andrew's Descent , where he took part in many charity events, in particular, the strengthening of St. Andrew’s Mountain and the improvement of the square below St. Andrew’s Church. The Museum of One Street contains a unique portrait of the Kiev Polish writer, his books, portraits of N. Gogol, T. Shevchenko, N. Kostomarov. Here are the manuscripts of P. Kulish.
- Grabovsky, Mikhail // Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary : 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb. , 1890-1907.