Maternity time is the time calculation procedure “ standard time plus one hour” established in the USSR in 1930-1931. The order was established by three government decrees, and not by decree , as is sometimes believed.
A similar procedure for calculating time was in effect in a number of regions of the country also from July 1, 1919 to May 1, 1924, when this type of legal act, as a decree, was still in circulation. According to current concepts, maternity time (as well as standard time) in the USSR and in Russia corresponds to the English concept of standard time .
Maternity time was officially canceled in 1991, but was restored in Russia and in several countries of the former USSR in 1992. Officially, this procedure for calculating time was in effect until 2011, but in fact it continues to operate in most Russian regions. During the official time of maternity time, some regions actually canceled it, switching to the time of the neighboring western time zone , or, conversely, incremented for another hour, switching to the time of the neighboring eastern time zone - in both cases, the new time could also be called maternity time.
The concept of maternity time in Russia has actually been removed from official use in the civilian sphere (preserved in the Russian cosmonautics) in connection with the legislative introduction in 2011 of the concept of local time .
Obviously, the name maternity time comes from the word maternity . However, by 1930-1931, which include the beginning of the introduction of maternity time, the decree as a type of legal act was already abolished. The adoption of a new procedure for calculating time (“ standard time , translated 1 hour ahead”  ) is based on three decisions of the Council of People 's Commissars of the USSR    - they do not indicate the introduction of the notion of maternity time. In the geographic atlas of 1940, this concept is also not used; quote from the explanatory text to the time zone map, p. 3  :
Note: Based on the decision of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR from June 16, 1930 and February 9, 1931 (No. 107)  throughout the territory of the USSR until the cancellation, the hour hand is moved 1 hour ahead of the time zone of this belt.
Similar notes in geographic atlases after 1930 provided a color image of the time zones of the USSR, as for countries in which official time was indeed “zone time of a given zone,” while maternity time was actually the time of a neighboring eastern time zone.
The notion of maternity time was not used in well-known government decrees on the issue of calculating time in a later period. A certain exception was the decree of February 4, 1991  , where the phrase “maternity hours” was used. Despite the current daylight saving time, maps in geographical atlases, for example, in the 1960s, were called: "Standard Time"   . The legend of these cards indicated:
Within each zone, the clock should show the average solar time of the middle meridian of this belt. On the territory of the USSR, on the basis of the decisions of the Council of People's Commissars of 06.16.1930 and 02/09/1931, until cancellation, the hour hand is set 1 hour ahead of the time zone of this belt. The time calculated in accordance with the indicated decrees is called “maternity”.
Perhaps the name maternity time was influenced by the period 1919-1921 remaining in the people's memory. Then the procedure for calculating time in the RSFSR , including the transition to daylight saving time , was established by a government decree, and not a decree. In addition, in a number of regions from 1919-1923, the neighboring eastern time zone was also used in the winter.
The introduction of maternity time in the USSR in terms of the international system of time zones meant a change in official time, that is, a change in time zone. This practice has occurred in the history of some countries, for example, in 1940 in France (see # Advance Time in Other Countries ). The formal difference was that in the USSR the own numerical names of time zones established by decree of February 8, 1919  did not change in 1930-1931. For example, the time zone, which included Moscow, was still called the 2nd time zone of the USSR, although the official time in Moscow began to correspond to GMT +3 ( UTC +3).
The concept of Moscow maternity time (or maternity time Moscow  - the abbreviation DMV  is used) has been used and is probably being applied at present in Russian cosmonautics . Since the beginning of such an application, Moscow maternity time was 3 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time, that is, it corresponded to UTC + 3, and during the application of daylight saving time in the USSR and Russia, it always corresponded to “winter” time  .
The English phrase legal time is sometimes unsuccessfully translated into Russian as maternity time, and for any country in the world (see, for example, the Russian version of the Appendix to the ITU Operational Bulletin  , LEGAL TIME 2015  ). Considering the history of the introduction of maternity time in the USSR and the connection of this concept with a special procedure for calculating time (“ standard time plus one hour”), the translation of legal time as local time should be recognized as more suitable (see Local time # New concept - local time ), and also - legalized time, statutory time or official time.
In the USSR
In 1917, daylight saving time was first introduced in Russia , introduced by the Decree of the Provisional Government for the period from July 1 to August 31, 1917 - it was 1 hour ahead of local average solar time . By the end of the period, this procedure was extended until October 1, and then again - “until further notice”  . In accordance with the decree of December 22, 1917  , at the end of the day on December 27, 1917, the clock was set back 1 hour. Local average solar time in the USSR was used until the complete introduction of the time zone system in 1924  . In Moscow and part of the territory of the RSFSR , the time zone system was introduced in 1919.
In 1918-1921, daylight saving time was introduced in Russia without any order, while from May 31, 1918 to May 2, 1924, the leading time was active all year round (the clock shift in the winter is 1 hour ahead) . Time in Moscow and on part of the territory of the RSFSR in the first years of Soviet power :
- 1918 (summer period) - local average solar plus 2 hours (resolution  );
- 1918 (winter period) - local average solar plus 1 hour (regulation  );
- 1919 (summer period) - local average solar plus 2 hours (decree  ), from July 1 - standard time plus 2 hours (decrees   );
- 1919 (winter) - standard time plus 1 hour (decree  );
- 1920 (year-round) - standard time plus 1 hour;
- 1921 (summer period) - standard time plus 3 hours (decrees   );
- 1921 (winter) - standard time plus 1 hour (decree  );
- 1922-1923 (year-round) - standard time plus 1 hour;
- 1924 - standard time plus 1 hour, from May 2 - standard time (resolution  ).
In 1925-1929, the time zone was in effect in the country without daylight saving time.
Beginning of the daylight saving time
In accordance with the decree of June 16, 1930 , the clock throughout the USSR at 00:00 on June 21, 1930 was shifted 1 hour forward for the period until September 30, 1930, as stated in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, “for more rational use of the light part of the day and the redistribution of electricity between household and industrial consumption ”  (the date of September 30 until 1930 was considered in the USSR as the end date of the so-called business year , which began on October 1  ).
The decree of September 30, 1930  extended the validity of the previous decree “until further notice”. The last document to establish a new procedure for calculating time was the decree of February 9, 1931  , which retained the effect of the two previous decrees “until cancellation”. In the newspaper Izvestia , the first two decisions were published (without comment) the day after their release, respectively, on June 17, 1930 and October 1, 1930. The publication of the decision of February 9, 1931, at least in the newspaper Izvestia, was not found. The introduction of a new procedure for calculating time coincided with the initial period of collectivization  and industrialization in the USSR.
It was established that the extension of the leading time in September 1930 was associated not to a greater extent with energy saving, but with the possibility of reducing the maximum load of power plants in the winter in the evening. The operation of power plants at that time was characterized by an extremely low reserve power reserve or a complete absence of such a reserve, therefore, in 1931, the Supreme Economic Council proposed to move the clock forward an hour more, but the Gosplan opposed [* 1] . In 1935, a government decree was prepared to return to standard time, it passed all the necessary approvals, but for some reason it was not adopted  .
The decree of February 9, 1931 not only extended the decree of 1930, but also canceled the decree of February 8, 1919  with assigned time zone boundaries, entrusting the function of setting boundaries to the committee of the time service at the main state astronomical observatory in Pulkovo. Perhaps, in the coming years, new time zone borders would appear, but it is known that a large group of employees of the Pulkovo Observatory was repressed in 1936-1937, and in 1947 an Interdepartmental Commission of the Unified Time Service was created under the Committee on Measures and Measuring Instruments under the Council of Ministers of the USSR  - the function of establishing the borders of time zones passed to it.
Changes after 1937
On the map of the USSR’s communications route of 1938 , the borders of time zones are indicated by the line indicated in the symbols: “The border of zones of standard time (practically accepted)” . The boundaries marked on the map correspond to the boundaries established in 1924 according to the decree of February 8, 1919.
According to cartographic data, after 1937   there were changes that eliminated the use of different times in the territory of relatively small areas. Thus, maternity time in some regions (in their western part) changed 1 hour ahead, ahead of the time already set in 1924, by 2 hours, and in others (in the eastern part) - 1 hour ago, that is, “maternity hour "was actually canceled. For example, in regions separated by the border between the 2nd and 3rd time zones, GMT + 3 by 1947 acted on the entire territory of the Yaroslavl region , and GMT + 4 - on the entire territory of the Kostroma region.
After Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia entered the USSR in 1940, the clock on their territory was moved 1 hour (in Lithuania 2 hours) ahead - Moscow maternity time (GMT + 3), which since January 1, 1946, was in effect established in the Kaliningrad region  .
In accordance with the decision of the Interdepartmental Commission of the Unified Time Service, from December 1, 1956, the official borders of time zones were to be changed, in particular, to eliminate the presence of a number of regions in two time zones  [* 2] . As a result, maternity time in a number of places was supposed to change either 1 hour forward or 1 hour ago. It was planned to transfer the clock on December 1, 1956 at 00:00 Moscow time, but the procedure was postponed to March 1, 1957. Information on the transfer of hours on that day was in the newspapers Sovetskaya Rossiya and Gudok   , but it was not in other central newspapers ( Izvestia , Trud ). Obviously, the clock for the districts of the regions was described in local newspapers. For example, in the regional newspaper Zvezda ( Molotov Region ) it was noted that “today, the first of March, in the Karagai, Ocher, Sivinsky, Vereshchaginsky districts of our region, the working day began an hour earlier than before. (...) Now in our entire region time differs from Moscow by two hours ”  .
2 hours ahead of standard time
Advance of the time zone established in 1924 by 2 hours was valid in the western part of the following regions:
- by 1947 - Kostroma , Ivanovo , Vladimir , Ryazan , Lipetsk , Voronezh and Rostov regions and a number of other regions  ;
- by 1962 - excluding the above, Altai Territory, Arkhangelsk, Vologda, Novosibirsk, Perm , Sakhalin (Sakhalin Island), Tomsk, Tyumen and Chita Regions of the RSFSR, the Ural and Guryev Regions of the Kazakh SSR and several other regions  .
Actual canceled daylight saving time in a number of regions
After the reform of 1957 [* 3], some regions in the European part of the RSFSR , located in longitude east of Moscow, officially remaining in the 3rd time zone, switched to Moscow time , that is, they transferred the clock 1 hour ago, thereby effectively canceling "Maternity hour" in all or part of its territory    . According to cartographic data, the Mari and Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics passed to Moscow time earlier than those located closer to Moscow to the Mordovian and Chuvash Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics and the Gorky Region  . The cancellation of the “maternity hours” was explained on the maps of time zones in the geographical atlases of the USSR, for example, with the following note: “Territories in which the actually accepted time differs from maternity hours (not officially approved)”  . In other republics of the USSR, such changes did not occur until 1989   .
By 1973, the “maternity hour” was canceled in the following regions (in whole or in part of the region)  :
- Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkarian, Kalmyk, Komi, Mari, Mordovian, North Ossetian, Tatar, Chechen-Ingush, Chuvash, Yakut ASSR ( Ust-May and Tompon regions);
- Krasnodar, Stavropol, Krasnoyarsk, Khabarovsk Territories;
- Amur, Arkhangelsk, Vladimir, Vologda, Voronezh, Gorky, Ivanovo, Irkutsk, Kostroma, Lipetsk, Magadan, Penza, Rostov, Ryazan, Tambov, Tyumen, Yaroslavl regions.
In 1977-1980, the Komi Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic passed to Moscow time    , which in fact meant the abolition of maternity hours in the western part of the republic, including Syktyvkar, and the establishment of the time “zone minus 1 hour” in the eastern part.
An attempt to restore the lost "maternity hour"
On April 1, 1981, a government decree  introduced daylight saving time in the country, but the “maternity hour” by this time, as follows from the above, was actually canceled in a number of regions. As a result, daylight saving time in these regions began to be 1 hour ahead of the time zone set in 1924, in most regions by 2 hours, and in some by 3 hours. In addition to the introduction of daylight saving time, according to the mentioned resolution, it was required to restore the correspondence of the applied time to the administrative time zones, in other words, to restore the canceled “maternity hour”. This was especially true for the regions of the 3rd time zone, which switched over to Moscow time in different years. This is written by Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor V.V. Boytsov , who was at that time the chairman of the State Commission for Common Time and Reference Frequencies of the USSR, the chairman of the State Standard  .
In the spring of 1981, all the subjects of the USSR switched to daylight saving time, and on October 1, 1981, a significant part of them (about 30 subjects of the RSFSR, mainly in the European part of the country) did not move the clock back, remaining in the winter with summer, but in fact with restored maternity time. According to the plan, the following regions   were not supposed to translate the clock on October 1, 1981:
- Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Kalmyk, Komi  , Mari, Mordovia, North Ossetia, Tatars, Chechen-Ingush and Chuvash ASSRs;
- Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories;
- Arkhangelsk, Vladimir, Vologda, Voronezh, Gorky, Ivanovo, Kostroma, Lipetsk, Penza, Rostov, Ryazan, Tambov, Tyumen and Yaroslavl regions;
- Nenets  and Evenki autonomous okrugs, Khatanga district of the Taimyr (Dolgan-Nenets) autonomous okrug;
- Ust-Maysky, Ust-Aldan  and the Oymyakon districts of Yakutia and the Jizzakh region of the Uzbek SSR.
However, after the lapse of winter, the newspapers noted that the clarification of the time zone boundaries and the new procedure for calculating the time in them caused discontent among the population, as this led to a violation of the usual way of life of people, especially residents of the 3rd time zone, who were used to Moscow time, and: “Especially in areas where people watched live television from the capital. Now they lingered at the television sets an hour later against the local countdown. Hence, there are many letters asking to restore the former order ”  .
The full text of the note in the newspaper Trud of February 20, 1982  :
Will the time zone change in the central regions of the country? - Ask numerous readers of Labor.
As you know, last year, from April 1 to October 1, summer time was introduced in the country. At the same time, time zone boundaries were approved. With the establishment of these borders, a clear procedure for calculating time has been established in the country, which fully complies with the International Time Zone System and takes into account the existing administrative-territorial division.
As analysis has shown, summertime has fully justified itself economically. In addition, the population was able to better use daylight hours to relax after work. At the same time, problems arose in the process of streamlining the calculation of time, primarily in the areas that were transferred from Moscow time on October 1, 1981 to the time of the 3rd time zone (Moscow time + 1 hour). This caused numerous letters from workers to the newspaper Trud and other press organs.
As the Labor correspondent A. Vasilenko was told by the State Commission for Single Time and Reference Frequencies of the USSR, as a result of the analysis of letters from the field, it was decided to restore the time calculation procedure in force in a number of autonomous republics, territories, regions and autonomous okrugs of the RSFSR until October 1, 1981 . In particular, from April 1, p. summer time will not be entered on the territory of Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Kalmyk, Komi, Mari, Mordovia, North Ossetia, Tatar, Chechen-Ingush and Chuvash Autonomous Republics, Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, Arkhangelsk, Vladimir, Vologda, Voronezh, , Ivanovo, Kostroma, Lipetsk, Penza, Rostov, Ryazan, Tambov, Tyumen and Yaroslavl regions, the Nenets and Evenki autonomous okrugs, the Khatanga district of the Taimyr (Dolgan-Nenets) autonomous okrug. As a result, the listed territories from April 1, s. will again begin to live according to Moscow time, with the exception of the Tyumen region, the time in which will differ from Moscow by 2 hours, as well as the Evenki Autonomous Region and the Khatanga District of the Taimyr (Dolgan-Nenets) Autonomous Region - by 4 hours. October 1, p. d. all the regions of the country, including those listed above, will be transferred to winter time.
The quote lists all the regions that should not have translated the clock on October 1, 1981, excluding the Ust-May, Ust-Aldan  and Oymyakon districts of Yakutia and the Jizzakh region of the Uzbek SSR [* 4]
So, in the spring of 1982, the regions indicated in the quote (except for the Komi Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and the Nenets Autonomous Okrug  , which returned to Moscow time in 1984-1987    ) did not change the clock to summer time, but in the fall transferred them together with everyone 1 hour ago, thus returning to their usual “winter” time (without “maternity hours”). According to some information  , the clock was not translated in the spring of 1982 in the eastern part of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, which thus abolished the “maternity hour” in this part of the territory.
Cancellation of maternity time in 1988-1991
In 1988-1990, they switched over to the neighboring Western time zone, effectively canceling maternity time:
- 03/27/1988 - Volgograd and Saratov regions  ;
- 03/26/1989 - Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Astrakhan, Kaliningrad, Kirov, Kuibyshev and Ulyanovsk regions, as well as the Ural region of Kazakhstan  [* 5] ;
The State Commission for the Common Time and Reference Frequencies of the USSR reports that on Sunday March 26, 1989, summer time is introduced on the territory of the Soviet Union. Daylight saving time will be changed at 2 hours on March 26 by moving the clockwise 1 hour ahead.
In connection with the decision of the USSR government to change the time calculation in the Latvian SSR, the Lithuanian SSR, the Estonian SSR, the Astrakhan, Kaliningrad, Kuibyshev, Kirov, Ulyanovsk regions of the RSFSR and the Ural region of the Kazakh SSR, the hour hand in these territories is not translated  .
- 05/06/1990 - Moldova  ;
- 07/01/1990 - Ukraine   (maternity time was actually restored by canceling the autumn time change on September 30, 1990  ).
Also in 1990 Georgia abolished maternity time. In addition, several regions, including Belarus , refused the seasonal watch change. In the TASS information material about 1990, it was noted  :
And yet, under the pressure of public opinion, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Azerbaijan did not enter summer time last year. Moldova and Georgia abandoned maternity hours. The same decision was made in Ukraine, but the hands of the clock “for the winter” did not translate here. In their own way, they ordered the ability to move the clock hands in some autonomous republics, territories and regions of the Russian Federation.
On March 31, 1991 (the date of the next daylight saving time change), maternity time was officially canceled throughout the USSR, except the Turkmen SSR and the western part of the Uzbek SSR  . At the same time, the seasonal clock was kept everywhere, but (according to the decree  ) might not be used in the Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Tajik, Turkmen and Uzbek SSR. All these circumstances determined the following planned procedure for the transition of republics, territories and regions to daylight saving time on March 31, 1991, published in the Izvestia newspaper  :
- The clock is not translated over most of the territory of the USSR (the source contains a complete list of regions).
- The clock is set 1 hour ahead: Georgia, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Moldova, Komi Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, Kaliningrad Region, Nenets Autonomous Okrug.
- The clock is moved 1 hour ago: Kazakhstan (except the Ural region), Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, eastern regions of Uzbekistan.
At the end of the summer time period on September 29, 1991, the clock in the USSR, with the exception of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan, is transferred one hour ago  .
However, later, in the newspaper “Sovetskaya Rossiya”  , a slightly different, possibly refined, procedure for this procedure was published (in particular, the seasonal clock was kept in Kazakhstan):
- Clocks are not transferred to most of the USSR. The full list of regions cited in the source contains the following union republics: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan (except the Ural region), Turkmenistan, Ukraine.
- The clock is moved 1 hour ahead: Georgia, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Moldova, the Ural region of Kazakhstan, the Kaliningrad region.
- Clock is moved 1 hour ago: Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, eastern regions of Uzbekistan.
At the end of the summer time period on September 29, 1991, the clock in the USSR, with the exception of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan, is moved back one hour  .
The actual procedure in some regions in the spring and especially in the fall of 1991 was different from the planned one. For example, the Kaliningrad region, which passed in 1989 to the time of MSC − 1 ( UTC +2 in winter)  , according to the plan, was supposed to return to Moscow time on March 31, 1991. However, on March 29, 1991, the Regional Council of People’s Deputies decided “to maintain the existing time difference between Moscow and Kaliningrad”  - the hours on March 31 were not transferred in the region, and after the hours were changed on September 29, 1991, UTC + one.
It is likely that the transfer of hours in the three regions 1 hour ago, scheduled for the spring of 1991, was carried out at a more appropriate time — after the end of the summer period  :
- 08/31/1991 - Kyrgyzstan ;
- 09.09.1991 - Tajikistan ;
- 09/29/1991 - Uzbekistan .
After changing the clock on September 29, 1991 to 1 hour ago, Moscow time began to correspond to UTC + 2. Some regions, such as the Samara region  , refused to change the clock in the fall of 1991. Perhaps the Astrakhan, Volgograd, Kirov, Saratov Regions and Udmurtia, as well as a number of other regions, did the same in the same way - these are the further described events (see # In Russia after 1991 ).
The cancellation of maternity hours in 1991 did not take into account the fact that in 1946-1989 many regions had already canceled the maternity hours by switching to the neighboring Western time zone (see Time in Russia # Changing local time in Russian cities ). Therefore, in these regions, local time from September 29, 1991 began to lag by 1 hour from the standard time set in 1924, and in the whole country, the "winter" time was shifted almost 1 hour ago almost everywhere.
The abolition of maternity time in the Union republics in 1989-1991 coincided with the collapse of the USSR .
Decision to restore maternity time in the RSFSR
On October 23, 1991, the Council of the Republic of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR by its resolution obliged the government to restore maternity time on the territory of the RSFSR, stating that the implementation of the decision of February 4, 1991 “on canceling maternity time and moving the clock back 1 hour back on September 29, 1991 led to reducing the duration of daylight hours in a significant part of the territory of the RSFSR, caused discontent among the population and led to an increase in electricity consumption ”  .
According to the decision of local authorities, the Kaliningrad region managed to set the clock 1 hour ahead on November 3, 1991  - before the start of winter and before the collapse of the USSR.
After 1991 in Russia
The return of maternity time was carried out on January 19, 1992 by a government decree of January 8, 1992  . Subjects of the Russian Federation, except for the Kaliningrad region  and some other regions, set the clock 1 hour ahead. According to different sources, giving different information, the following regions should not have translated the clock on January 19, 1992:
- Astrakhan, Kirov, Saratov regions  ;
- Astrakhan, Volgograd, Saratov regions, Udmurtia, Chechnya and Tatarstan  ;
- Astrakhan, Volgograd, Kirov, Samara, Saratov regions and Udmurtia  .
From the statement in the local newspaper “Arguments and Facts in Samara”: “The Council of Ministers of the RSFSR in September 1991 returned the region to its previous time zone”  , it follows that the difference of 1 hour from Moscow time could return for Samara from September 29, when Moscow time began to correspond to UTC + 2, and in the Samara region UTC + 3 time continued to operate. Transferring the clock in the Samara region on January 19, 1992, together with most regions 1 hour ahead, was a prerequisite for maintaining the difference of 1 hour with Moscow time. Therefore, it is most likely (according to the totality of sources) that the hours of January 19, 1992 did not change the Astrakhan, Volgograd, Kirov, Saratov regions and Udmurtia - in these regions, except for Udmurtia, in the winter of 1991-1992, until the switch to daylight saving time in March In 1992, UTC + 3 was valid, and in Udmurtia - UTC + 4 [* 6] .
By a resolution of January 8, 1992, the use of the neighboring Western time zone on the territory of a number of subjects of time (the actual abolition of maternity time) was also officially approved for the following years:
- Moscow time minus one hour in the Kaliningrad region ;
- Moscow time in the territories of the republics of the Russian Federation, territories and regions assigned to the 3rd time zone (republics of Adygea , Dagestan , Ingushetia , Kabardino-Balkaria , Kalmykia , Karachay-Cherkessia , Mari El , Mordovia , North Ossetia , Tatarstan , Udmurtia , Chechnya and Chuvashia , Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, most of the Arkhangelsk Region , Astrakhan , Vladimir , Volgograd , Vologda , Voronezh , Ivanovo , Kirov , Kostroma , Lipetsk , Nizhny Novgorod , Penza , Rostov , Ryazan Samara , Saratov , Tambov , Ulyanovsk and Yaroslavl regions);
- Moscow time in the territories of the Arkhangelsk region and the Komi SSR ;
- time of the 4th time zone (MSC + 2) on the territory of the Tyumen region ;
- time of the 6th time zone (MSC + 4) throughout the territory of the Krasnoyarsk Territory .
As of 1992 (after January 19), such allowable time was valid in all the above-mentioned subjects of the Russian Federation, except for Udmurtia and the Samara region.
Since daylight saving time was not canceled in Russia, on March 29, 1992, the clock in all regions was set 1 hour ahead. There were no changes in the official time in any regions in March 1992 (in the quotation below, source italics):
In 1930, Maternity Time was introduced, adding one hour to the zone. Last year, the government tried to abolish it altogether in order to finally return to the natural, half-length. But many sharply protested, and lawmakers reversed the government decision. And so we live, in some way checking the clock "according to Stalin."
So, on the night of March 28 to 29, turn the hands one hour ahead - summer time comes  .
In 1993-2002, they switched over to the time of the neighboring western time zone, effectively canceling maternity time in the eastern part of the region (in the Altai Republic - throughout the territory):
- 05/23/1993 - Novosibirsk region;
- 05/28/1995 - Altai Republic and Altai Territory;
- 03/30/1997 - Sakhalin Region  ;
- 05/01/2002 - Tomsk region  .
Proposals for the re-transition of the Samara region to the time of the neighboring western time zone (Moscow time) were considered in 1997-1998, but there was no unanimous opinion of the population then. The issue was postponed and raised again in February 2008  .
In 2001, the Legislative Duma of the Tomsk Region initiated a bill to abolish both maternity and summer time in Russia  (the issue of calculating time at that time was regulated by a decree of the government of the Russian Federation), but it was rejected by the State Duma. Another bill on the widespread abolition of maternity and summer time was introduced by State Duma deputies in November 2009, but it received a negative review of the Russian government and was subsequently withdrawn by the initiators  .
Since March 28, 2010, maternity time has actually been canceled in Udmurtia, in the Kamchatka Territory, in the Kemerovo and Samara Regions, and in the western part of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug     . By early 2011, the “maternity hour” was canceled in all or part of the territory of approximately 60% of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, where, according to the 2002 census, approximately 50% of the Russian population lived  (see # Cancellation of the “maternity hour” as of 2010 ) In the eastern part of the Republic of Komi, the Nenets and Chukotka Autonomous Okrugs in the winter, the time was 1 hour behind the standard time established in 1924.
The reform of 2010 began after a proposal to consider the possibility of “reducing the number of time zones” voiced by President Medvedev during his message to the Federal Assembly on November 12, 2009  . In November 2010, 11 regions submitted proposals for switching to the neighboring Western time zone (see Time in Russia # Attempt to Continue Reform ). Such a transition for most of these regions would be an actual abolition of maternity time, but for some regions (for example, the Kamchatka Territory), it would lead to the establishment of an official time that is 1 hour behind the standard time of 1924. The promotion of this reform may have been influenced by the massive manifestation of discontent in a number of regions, in particular in Kamchatka  .
In the Former Soviet Republics of the USSR
Maternity time in 1992:
- saved (not canceled in 1991): Turkmenistan , Uzbekistan (western part of the territory);
- restored: Azerbaijan , Armenia , Georgia , Kazakhstan ;
- not restored: Belarus , Kyrgyzstan , Latvia , Lithuania , Moldova , Transnistria , Tajikistan , Uzbekistan (eastern regions), Ukraine , Estonia .
This, in particular, led to the fact that in 1992-2004 different times operated in Kazakhstan and in neighboring countries in the south.
... In Kazakhstan and in neighboring countries (Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan), the transition to "summer" time is carried out from different points of reference. If in the Republic of Kazakhstan the maternity is the initial, then the neighbors in the region use astronomical time (1 hour difference). Thus, taking into account the fact that the transition to "summer" time is canceled in Uzbekistan, the difference increases to two hours during this transition in Kazakhstan, which leads to additional inconvenience in providing transport links between the countries  .
Maternity hours after 1992:
- acted on the territory of the Republic of Crimea in 1994-1996 and was actually restored there in 2014;
- restored in Kyrgyzstan (2005) and Belarus (2011).
The cancellation of the “maternity hours” in Abkhazia and South Ossetia occurred on October 26, 2014  .
As of 2016:
- maternity time is actually applied in Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Republic of Crimea, Turkmenistan and the western part of Uzbekistan;
- apply daylight saving time: Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Transnistria, Ukraine, Estonia;
- Do not use daylight saving time: Abkhazia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, South Ossetia.
Cancel Maternity Hour as of 2010
The description of the boundaries of administrative time zones in the decree of February 8, 1919  gives an idea of the administrative time zone in settlements and the offset of this time from UTC . From here, based on the definition and knowing the offset from UTC at the moment, you can find out the actual saving of maternity time in different places. The data on the eve of 2011 are of interest, since by that time the “maternity hour” was canceled in the largest number of regions (excluding the reform of 1991-1992).
The list below shows: the average sunny afternoon at the administrative centers of the regions in 2010 (after March 28), excluding daylight saving time , the actual preservation of the “maternity hour” (PM) and the year (or, in parentheses, the approximate period) of its actual cancellation.
13:26 Chita - DC
13:20 Orenburg - DC
13:16 Ufa - DCH
13:15 Perm - DC
13:13 Vladivostok - DC
13:08 Birobidzhan - DC
13:07 Pskov - DC
13:07 Omsk - DC
13:03 Irkutsk - DC, eastern part of the Irkutsk region - 1957
13:00 Khabarovsk - DC, the eastern part of the Khabarovsk Territory - 1957
12:59 St. Petersburg - DC
12:58 Yekaterinburg - DC
12:57 Magadan - DC, the eastern part of the Magadan region - (1968-1973)
12:55 Veliky Novgorod - DC
12:54 Abakan - DC
12:54 Chelyabinsk - DC
12:52 Smolensk - DC
12:50 Ulan-Ude - DC
12:49 Krasnoyarsk - DC, the eastern part of the Krasnoyarsk Territory - (1968-1973)
12:48 Murmansk - DC
12:43 Petrozavodsk - DC
12:42 Bryansk - DC
12:42 Kyzyl - DC
12:39 Barrow - DC
12:38 Kaliningrad - DC
12:38 Tyumen - DC, the eastern part of the Tyumen region - (1961-1969)
12:36 Tver - DC
12:36 Eagle - DC
12:35 Kursk - DC
12:35 Kaluga - DC
12:34 Belgorod - DC
12:34 Salekhard - (1961-1969), the western part of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug - DC
12:30 Blagoveshchensk - 1957, the western part of the Amur Region - DC
12:30 Moscow - DC
12:30 Tula - DC
12:29 Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk - DC
12:28 Novosibirsk - 1993, the western part of the Novosibirsk region - DC
12:25 Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky - 2010
12:25 Barnaul - 1995, the western part of the Altai Territory - DC
12:24 Krasnodar - (1957-1962)
12:24 Khanty-Mansiysk - (1961-1969), the western part of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - DC
12:23 Voronezh - DC, the eastern part of the Voronezh region - (1957-1962)
12:22 Lipetsk - DC, the eastern part of the Lipetsk region - (1957-1962)
12:21 Ryazan - DC, the eastern part of the Ryazan region - (1957-1962)
12:21 Rostov-on-Don - DC, the eastern part of the Rostov region - (1957-1962)
12:21 Yakutsk - DC, the middle part of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) - (1957-1962)
12:21 Yaroslavl - DC, the eastern part of the Yaroslavl region - (1957-1962)
12:20 Vologda - DC, the eastern part of the Vologda Oblast - (1961-1969)
12:20 Tomsk - 2002, the western part of the Tomsk Region - DC
12:20 Maykop - (1957-1962)
12:18 Vladimir - DC, the eastern part of the Vladimir region - (1957-1962)
12:18 Arkhangelsk - DC, the eastern part of the Arkhangelsk region - (1961-1969)
12:16 Kostroma - DC, the eastern part of the Kostroma region - (1957-1962)
12:16 Gorno-Altaysk - 1995
12:16 Ivanovo - DC, the eastern part of the Ivanovo region - (1957-1962)
12:16 Kemerovo - 2010
12:14 Tambov - (1957-1962), the western part of the Tambov region - DC
12:12 Stavropol - (1957-1962)
12:12 Cherkessk - (1957-1962)
12:06 Nalchik - (1961-1969)
12:04 Nizhny Novgorod - (1961-1969)
12:03 Elista - (1968-1973)
12:02 Volgograd - 1988
12:01 Vladikavkaz - (1961-1969)
12:01 Magas - (1968-1973) [* 7]
12:00 Penza - (1961-1969)
11:59 Saransk - (1968-1973)
11:57 Terrible - (1968-1973)
11:56 Saratov - 1988
11:51 Cheboksary - (1968-1973)
11:50 Makhachkala - (1968-1973)
11:48 Yoshkar-Ola - (1961-1969)
11:48 Astrakhan - 1989
11:46 Ulyanovsk - 1989
11:44 Kazan - (1961-1969)
11:41 Kirov - 1989
11:39 Samara - 2010
11:37 Syktyvkar - (1984-1987)    , the eastern part of the Komi Republic - (1957-1962)
11:28 Naryan-Mar - (1961-1969)
11:27 Izhevsk - 2010
11:10 Anadyr - 1982, western part of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug - 2010
The exact dates of the transition to the neighboring Western time zone (cancellation of the "maternity hour"): March 1, 1957  , April 1, 1982, March 27, 1988  , March 26, 1989  , May 23, 1993, May 28, 1995, March 30, 1997, May 1, 2002  , March 28, 2010     .
The approximate periods when the cancellation of the “maternity hour” took place, determined mainly by cartographic data: (1957-1962)   , (1961-1969)   , (1968-1973) [ 8]  .
By 2011, according to the administrative-territorial division existing at that time, the “maternity hour” was actually canceled in the 36 administrative centers of the regions listed above and remained in 45, which amounted to 56% of the total number of regions.
Despite the actual abolition of maternity time in most regions of Russia, the procedure for calculating the time “standard time plus one hour” with the annual switch to daylight saving time officially (according to the documents) continued to operate in all regions until the appearance of the government decree of August 31, 2011  , which recognized almost all articles of the resolution of January 8, 1992 as invalid.
On March 27, 2011, the clock was switched to daylight saving time , and the subsequent return to “winter” time was canceled [* 8] by a resolution of August 31, 2011. The Law on the Calculation of Time, adopted on June 3, 2011  , among other things, introduced new concepts into the official circulation - the time zone and local time . Thus, formally, the concepts of daylight saving time , zone time were canceled, but in fact the “zone time plus one hour” order continued to operate in many regions, along with the constant summer time left in 2011.
Repetition of the 1930 situation in Russia
The situation of 1930 was repeated, but the constant summer time in 2011 in a number of regions began to outstrip the time zone established in 1924 by two and three hours. For example, a three-hour lead was in the west of the Perm Territory, Irkutsk Oblast, Yakutia, Trans-Baikal Territory and in a number of other places. However, there was zero difference in the east of the Komi Republic, the Nenets and Chukotka Autonomous Districts.
It is known that representatives of the country's energy sector supported the “option of preserving both maternity and summer time during the year”  . This article draws attention to the magnitude and time of daily peaks of electricity consumption for different options for calculating time in the regions of Russia, which, perhaps, is important for the export of electricity to neighboring countries located in other time zones . For example, according to the data of East Energy Company OJSC from the page of the About Company website  after 2011 (when the return to winter time was canceled in Russia), the volume of electricity export to China and Mongolia increased significantly.
The 2011 reform did not find support among a significant part of the Russian population. Permanent daylight saving time was canceled on October 26, 2014 by amendments to the law "On the calculation of time"  . All regions except Udmurtia, the Samara and Kemerovo regions, the Kamchatka Territory and the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug moved the clock. The Trans-Baikal Territory and the Magadan Region moved the clock 2 hours ago, and the rest of the regions 1 hour ago. For the eastern part of the Magadan region, this was another (after 1973) transition to the neighboring western time zone, and the official time there was one hour behind the standard time set in 1924.
Actual return of maternity time in a number of regions
In 2016, 10 regions, including the Trans-Baikal Territory and the Magadan Region, set the clock 1 hour ahead (see Time in Russia # Period after 2014 ). In some regions, initiatives to change local time were based on the fact that long-term maternity hours were applied in the past. For example, in the Altai Territory until 1957, maternity hours UTC + 6 operated in the western part of the region, and UTC + 7 in the eastern part. In 1957-1994, UTC + 7 was valid throughout the territory of the region. In 1981, a seasonal clock change was introduced (in summer - UTC + 8), and in 1995 Altai Territory switched the clock 1 hour ago - daylight saving time became UTC + 7, and “winter” time - UTC + 6. The initiators of the local time change considered that without a seasonal clock change, UTC + 7 would be more familiar and convenient for the population  .
In general, during the period 2011–2018, the “maternity hour” returned to almost all the regions that canceled it in 1988–2010 (Astrakhan, Barnaul, Volgograd, Gorno-Altaysk, Izhevsk, Kemerovo, Novosibirsk, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Samara, Saratov, Tomsk, Ulyanovsk), and the two-hour lead time established in 1924 in the West of the Altai and Transbaikal Territories, Novosibirsk, Tomsk and Sakhalin (Sakhalin Island) Regions was restored.
After 2018, maternity time actually operates in 58 (out of 82) administrative centers of the territories, regions and autonomous okrugs, which is 71% of the total number of these regions.
Advance time in other countries
Some countries, too, have been using leading time for many years - the time of the neighboring eastern time zone . However, the circumstances and goals of introducing such a time are different and different from those that were in the USSR in 1930-1931. The introduction of leading time is actually a simultaneous transfer of historically established work and training schedules to an earlier interval of the day according to local solar time . The introduction of such a time is usually associated with a special period in the life of society, for example, a war or an economic crisis, when a ban on changing the work schedule can be established - otherwise there will be no proper effect.
Consequences of military occupation
Before World War II , Western European time (WET, UTC) operated on the territory of Belgium , France , Spain and several other countries. During the war period, Central European time (CET, UTC + 1) was introduced in these and other occupied countries - in the Netherlands on May 16, 1940, in Belgium on May 20, 1940, in France on June 14, 1940 - at the time of its introduction, it was Central European Summer Time (CEST , UTC + 2)  . The indicated dates correspond to the period of occupation of these countries. Spain, although it did not officially participate in World War II, also actually switched to Central European time, retaining its summer time (WEST, UTC + 2) unchanged in the autumn of 1940.
Central European time during this period was also introduced in the occupied territories east of Germany . For example, in Minsk, the clock was set 1 hour ago (Central European Summer Time) on June 28, 1941, and in Kiev on September 20, 1941. After the clock was transferred another 1 hour ago on November 2, 1942 , the current time in these cities began to lag by 1 hour from the geographic time zone .
Hence it can be assumed that the leading time in Western European countries during the period of occupation appeared not “with a view to more rational use of the light part of the day and the redistribution of electricity between household and industrial consumption”, as in the USSR in 1930, but for political reasons. Western European countries did not return to the old time after the war, as a single central European time proved to be more convenient due to close economic and transport ties with neighboring countries.
During World War II, daylight saving time operated all year round in the United States from February 9, 1942 to September 30, 1945  . England used the leading time (UTC + 1) from February 25, 1940 to November 2, 1947, with a break in 1946. Moreover, in the summer period of 1941-1947, summer time was also superimposed on it (see Summer time # Double summer time ).
Daylight saving time operated all year round in England from February 18, 1968 to October 31, 1971. D. House, in Greenwich Time and the Opening of Longitude (chapter 6), writes that England tried to experiment in order to align its time with Central European time. However, the experiment had to be stopped, because "this innovation caused general discontent in the country, especially the population of the westernmost regions of Great Britain objected to it"  .
Advance time, in order to reduce the number of time zones, was introduced in the westernmost state of Brazil , Acre , in 2008, but the reform did not find support among the population of this state  . Watches that were transferred in the state of Acre 1 hour ahead in June (winter) 2008 were transferred back, 1 hour ago, in November 2013  - the state of Acre returned to the UTC − 5 time zone.
The leading time has been operating in Argentina for many years, but the procedure for calculating time has repeatedly changed there  . There were periods of continuous validity of UTC − 4, seasonal effect of UTC − 4 and UTC − 3, continuous effect of UTC − 3 and seasonal effect of UTC − 3 and UTC − 2. Since March 15, 2009, UTC − 3 has been in effect in Argentina.
Since 1949, a single Beijing time (UTC + 8) has been officially operating in China , which, in fact, is leading time for the central and, especially, for the western regions of the country, such as Xinjiang and Tibet . The working and school days in these areas according to Beijing time begin 2 hours later than in Beijing , in accordance with local solar time. For reasons of convenience, a significant part of the population in these areas prefers to use local unofficial time - Urumqi time (UTC + 6), which is more consistent with local solar time.
In the post-Soviet space
As of 2019, leading time is valid in most of the regions of Russia, in Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and in the western part of Uzbekistan. The leading time was canceled, but the clock was changed to daylight saving time: Lithuania, Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine, Estonia. The leading time in Abkhazia, Tajikistan, in the eastern part of Uzbekistan and in South Ossetia has been canceled.
Attempts to cancel lead time
In Spain, the long-running leading time has led to the fact that many foreigners familiar to her daily routine are perceived as unusually late - not being, in many respects, such in local solar time (see Time in Spain ). In September 2013, a parliamentary commission to study the rational daily routine of the Spaniards submitted a report to the government proposing a return to Greenwich time   . However, no positive decision was made. In December 2016, information was received from the Government of Spain that the issue of shifting the clock 1 hour ago is under discussion  . The example of Spain shows that the cancellation of the leading time, valid for a long period (tens of years), can be difficult.
Leading Time in Fiction
I. A. Bunin , while in Odessa , found the period of 1919, when the Soviet power temporarily operating in this territory used Moscow (in the Bunin’s diary - “Soviet”) time. Moscow time at that time was ahead of the local average solar time in Moscow by 1 hour before May 31, 1919 and 2 hours after, and taking into account the difference in geographic longitude, it was ahead of the local average solar time in Odessa by about 1.5 hours, and then by 2.5 hours. From a diary entry dated April 22nd  : “In the evenings, it’s terribly mystical. It’s still light, and the clock shows something ridiculous, nocturnal . ” From a record of June 11, from a conversation with the janitor Thomas:
And I think that they, these Red Army men, are the root of evil. All yarygs, all robbers. You count how many of them now got out of all the holes. And how they mock at a civilian! He walks down the street and suddenly: “Comrade citizen, what time is it?” And he foolishly takes out his watch and blurts out: “Two and a half hours.” - “How, mother, your soul, like two and a half, when now it’s our way, Soviet, five? So you’re the old regime? ”- He will snatch the clock off the pavement!
From the story of A. I. Solzhenitsyn, “ One Day of Ivan Denisovich ”:
Then they brought the tank, melt the snow for a solution. Heard from someone as if twelve o'clock already.
“Only twelve,” Shukhov announced. - The sun is on the pass already.
“If it’s on the pass,” said the cautorang, “so, then, it’s not twelve, but an hour.”
- Why is this? - marveled Shukhov. - All grandfathers know: the sun is above all in the afternoon.
- That - grandfathers! - cut off the cautorang. - And since then there has been a decree, and the sun is above the hour at all.
- Whose decree is this?
- Soviet power!
A cautorang with a stretcher came out, but Shukhov would not argue. Is the sun really subject to their decrees?
Versions of the reason for the introduction of maternity time
The original version was put forward by E. A. Polyak in the 1990s, turning to some facts of the biography of the biophysicist A. L. Chizhevsky  . In Chizhevsky’s monograph, “Physical Factors of the Historical Process,” published in 1924, in particular, there was an attempt to connect bursts of social activity of the masses with 11-year cycles of solar activity , which Polyak writes in detail in 2010 in an article devoted to the 115th anniversary of Chizhevsky’s birth  . After 1924, while working in the laboratory of zoopsychology, Chizhevsky could also have the idea of reducing the social activity of the masses due to some massive disturbance of biorhythms and sleep function due to the widespread shift of the clock  . On the eve of collectivization in the USSR , measures were needed to mitigate possible bursts of social activity in the countryside  . Pole suggests that maternity time was introduced "in the territory of the former USSR in 1929-1930, probably not without the participation of A. L. Chizhevsky"  .
The official version outlined in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, according to which maternity time was introduced “in order to more rationally use the light part of the day and redistribute electricity between household and industrial consumption”  , seems more plausible. Indeed, the transfer of watches in 1930 by 1 hour forward hit the middle of the first five-year plan (1928-1932), during the difficult period for the country to begin industrialization and the corresponding lack of resources. An analysis of the documents of the 1930s shows that the need to use leading time throughout the year was largely due not to fuel economy for power plants, but to the lack of their capacity to cover maximum loads in the winter after the end of daylight hours  .
- The Gosplan considered the argument of the Supreme Economic Council unreasonable and unconvincing, especially since in the regions the attitude to leading time was ambiguous. For example, the chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Ukrainian SSR V. Ya. Chubar telegraphed to Moscow at the beginning of November 1930: "SAVING A FURTHER HOUR HAND FORWARD FORWARD WORKS BEGINNING IMPOSABLE WORKS BEGIN IN THE DARKNESS PLEASE DELETE THE QUESTION CANCELED."
- By 1947, the same time already existed in the regions crossed by the official border between the 2nd and 3rd time zones (excluding the Arkhangelsk and Vologda Regions). The changes should have affected the more distant regions from Moscow.
- Not reliably established, it is possible that these changes began after 1946.
- With this in mind, it is possible that in violation of the planned procedure on October 1, 1981, Ust-Maysky and Tomponsky (and not Ust-Aldansky, most likely) districts transferred the hours 1 hour ago, that is, they saved the time difference with Moscow 6 hours, which as evidenced by the inhabitants of these regions in their comments of the period 2010-2016, did not change subsequently   .
- In the Kaliningrad and Ural regions, where until 1989, “standard time plus 2 hours” actually operated, maternity time was preserved.
- Of all the regions of the 3rd time zone, Udmurtia was the only region in this period where the difference with Moscow time, as in the regions of the 4th time zone, was 2 hours.
- Magas as the administrative center of the Republic of Ingushetia was founded in the 1990s.
- relevant decision was announced by President Medvedev on February 8, 2011.
- dic.academic.ru. Daylight saving time
- Decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR of June 16, 1930 No. 60 “On the clockwise advance forward by one hour” . Date of treatment February 5, 2018.
- Decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR of September 30, 1930, "On the Extension of the Decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republic of June 16, 1930 on Moving Clockwise Forward by One Hour" istmat.info. Date of treatment February 5, 2018.
- Decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR of February 9, 1931 No. 107 “On the calculation of time according to the international system of time zones” . istmat.info. Date of treatment February 5, 2018.
Decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR of February 9, 1931 No. 107 "On the counting of time according to the international system of time zones" . consultant.ru. Date of treatment February 5, 2018.
- Atlas of the World, M., GUGK at the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR, 1940. About maternity, zone and summer time in the USSR
- Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of the USSR of 04.02.1991 No. 20 “Questions of the calculation of time on the territory of the USSR”
- Atlas of the USSR, M., GUGK, 1962
- Atlas of the USSR, M., GUGK, 1969
- Decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR of February 8, 1919 "On the introduction of time counting according to the international time zone system"
- Astronauts will not translate the clock hands . www.b-port.com. Date of treatment March 14, 2017.
- Kudryavtseva A.V. About the cause of an emergency situation with the Russian spacecraft Phobos-Grunt. Engineering Journal: Science and Innovation, 2016, no. eight.
- News. ISS and MCC do not switch to "winter time" . www.roscosmos.ru. Date of treatment March 14, 2017.
- LEGAL TIME 2015 (in Russian)
- LEGAL TIME 2015
- Ermolaev A. I. Translation of the clock hands in Russia as a result of the war of 1914–1918. and the further fate of this undertaking // Science and Technology: Questions of History and Theory. Materials of the XXXV international annual conference of the St. Petersburg branch of the Russian National Committee on the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (November 24–28, 2014). - SPb. , 2014 .-- T. XXX. - 340 p. - ISBN 978-5-90678204-5 .
- Decree of the Council of People's Commissars of December 22, 1917 "On the translation of the clock"
- Decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR of March 15, 1924 "On the introduction of time counts according to the international system of time zones"
- Resolution of the Council of People's Commissars of May 30, 1918 "On the clockwise movement"
- No. 497. Resolution of the Council of People's Commissars. About clockwise translation. | Project "Historical Materials" . istmat.info. Date of appeal April 18, 2017.
- Decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR of May 29, 1919 "On the clockwise movement"
- No. 147. Decree of the Council of People's Commissars. On the postponement of the enactment of the decree on the calculation of time according to the international system of time zones. | Project "Historical Materials" . istmat.info. Date of appeal April 18, 2017.
- Decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR of February 3, 1921 "On the clockwise movement"
- Decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR of March 7, 1921 “On the clockwise movement of one hour forward”
- No. 433. Decree of the Council of People's Commissars. About clockwise translation. | Project "Historical Materials" . istmat.info. Date of appeal April 18, 2017.
- (NW USSR 1930 No. 49, Article 510) On the postponement of the beginning of the financial year from October 1 to January 1. | Project "Historical Materials" . istmat.info. Date of appeal February 15, 2017.
- Main events and stages of collectivization in the USSR 1929-1934 . Great Country of the USSR. Date of appeal September 19, 2017.
- Research Department of the Public Service of Time and Frequency (NIO-7) Archived July 27, 2018 on the Wayback Machine . History reference
- Atlas of the commander of the Red Army. - M.: General Staff of the Red Army, 1938
- Atlas of the officer, Moscow, 1947. Timezone map digitized: Alexander Krivenyshev (WorldTimeZone)
- Appendix III “BORDERS OF THE HOUR ZONE IN THE TERRITORY OF THE SOVIET UNION” of the permanent part of the “Astronomical Calendar” for 1962 (All-Union Astronomical and Geodesic Society, ed. 5th, completely revised / Edited by P. I. Bakulin - M .: State Publishing House of Physics and Mathematics, 1962 - S. 752-753)
- March 1, 1957: New time zone boundaries. An article in the newspaper "Soviet Russia" dated 03/01/1957
- A note without a headline with a picture of the new time zones in the Gudok newspaper dated 03/03/1957.
- New time. Note in the newspaper "Star" from 03/01/1957
- Small Atlas of the USSR, M., GUGK at the Council of Ministers of the USSR, 1973
- Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of March 14, 1989 No. 227
- Atlas of the USSR, M., GUGK, 1990
- Small Atlas of the USSR, M., GUGK, 1978
- V.V. Boytsov. “Behind the clock hands”, in the journal “Science and Life” No. 3 of 1981. Time zones and summer time
- Time forward? Just not that! - Nevsky time
- Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR dated 10.24.1980 No. 925 “On the procedure for calculating time on the territory of the USSR” . lawru.info. Date of treatment February 5, 2018.
Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of October 24, 1980 No. 925 “On the procedure for calculating time on the territory of the USSR” . consultant.ru. Date of treatment February 5, 2018.
- Time for summer and winter. Note in the newspaper "Trud" from 09.25.1981
- Komi Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and the Nenets Autonomous Okrug did not have to translate the clock back and October 1, 1982.
- Here, perhaps, a mistake - there must be a Tompon district.
- Soon we will turn the hands to the hour. An article in the newspaper "Socialist Industry" dated 10.03.1982
- Amendment to standard time. Note in the newspaper "Trud" from 02.20.1982. Scan notes
- Question to residents of the village of Ust May - Ust-May . forum.ykt.ru. Date of treatment February 28, 2018.
- Reform in Time - Khandyga , Khandyga (April 2, 2010). Date of treatment February 28, 2018.
- Atlas of the USSR, M., GUGK, 1983
- Atlas of the USSR, M., GUGK, 1985
- Map of standard time as of 1987, since the time of Moscow time has not yet been applied in Volgograd and Saratov (it will be from 1988), and time in Moscow is already used in Anadyr
- Daylight saving time dates for Russia - Anadyr between 2010 and 2019 . www.timeanddate.com. Date of appeal September 29, 2017.
- Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR dated 04.01.1988 No. 5
- Summer time. Note in the newspaper "Trud" from 03.24.1989
- On changing the procedure for calculating time on the territory of the Ukrainian SSR Armed Forces of the Ukrainian SSR Decree of the Verkhovna Rada of June 11, 1990 No. 15-XII
- Calculation of time. General legislation of Ukraine
- Clock and time. Note in the newspaper "Star" from 02/27/1991
- When to translate the hour hand. Note in the newspaper "Izvestia" from 03/21/1991
- Procedure for the transition of republics, territories and regions to daylight saving time on March 31, 1991. Note in the newspaper Sovetskaya Rossiya of March 29, 1991
- Unique time zone of the Kaliningrad region
- Kaliningrad truth. Time is Local Archived October 6, 2014 on Wayback Machine
- Deputies of Chapaevsk want to return Samara to the past // Arguments and Facts
- Resolution of the Council of the Republic of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR of October 23, 1991 No. 1790-1 “On streamlining the calculation of time on the territory of the RSFSR”
- RELP. Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of January 8, 1992 No. 23 “On the procedure for calculating time on the territory of the Russian Federation”
- Let's say the clock: “cuckoo!” Note in the newspaper "Trud" from 01/18/1992
- life become brighter? An article in the Izvestia newspaper dated January 18, 1992
- Do not forget to translate the arrows! Note in the newspaper "Star" from 01/18/1992
- Clock "according to Stalin." Note in the newspaper Trud dated 03/28/1992
- On the consent of the Sakhalin Regional Duma to the transfer of the Sakhalin Region to the ninth time zone, Resolution of the Sakhalin Regional Duma of April 17, 1997 No. 8/141-2 Neopr . docs.cntd.ru. Date of treatment March 8, 2019.
- Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of April 17, 2002 No. 246 “On the application of the fifth time zone in the territory of the Tomsk Region”
- Samara region passes to Moscow time . Russian newspaper. Date of treatment March 13, 2017.
- On the legislative initiative of the State Duma of the Tomsk Region "On the transition of the Russian Federation to the standard time" . old.duma.tomsk.ru. Date of treatment October 17, 2016.
- Bill No. 283223-5 “On the Transition of the Russian Federation to Standard Time” was submitted to the State Duma on 11/16/2009
- Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of September 14, 2009 No. 740 “On the use of the fifth time zone in the territory of the Kemerovo Region”
- Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of March 17, 2010 No. 166 “On the use of the second time zone in the territory of the Udmurt Republic”
- Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of March 19, 2010 No. 170 “On the use of the second time zone in the territory of the Samara Region”
- Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of March 19, 2010 No. 171 “On the use of the tenth time zone in the territory of the Kamchatka Territory and the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug”
- Blog about time zones of Russia and the world . Time zones of Russia. Russia lives on maternity time. Is it really?
- Video blog of Dmitry Medvedev :: By the way, about time zones :: Text . blog.da-medvedev.ru. Date of treatment March 13, 2017.
- Kamchatka leaves dusk , Gazeta.Ru . Date of treatment March 13, 2017.
- Pleasant twilight. Kazakhstan refused to switch to daylight saving time . Date of treatment November 2, 2016.
- Caucasian Knot. Abkhazia and South Ossetia switched to winter time with Russia
- Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of August 31, 2011 No. 725 “On the composition of the territories forming each time zone and the procedure for calculating time in time zones, as well as on the recognition of individual decisions of the Government of the Russian Federation as invalid” Archived on March 4, 2016.
- Federal Law dated 03.06.2011 No. 107-ФЗ “On the calculation of time”
- Professional magazine "Energy Market", 03 (75) March 2010
- Official website of OJSC Eastern Energy Company. Company Page Archival copy of August 4, 2014 on the Wayback Machine
- Package of documents when introducing bill No. 944348-6 (on assigning the Altai Territory to the 6th hour zone)
- Derek House. Greenwich time and the discovery of longitude. Greenwich time for the whole world
- Alexander Krivenyshev. The reduction of time zones in Brazil was not successful after 2 years
- Spain wants to change the time zone - Euromag.ru unopened . www.euromag.ru. Date of treatment March 1, 2016.
- Spain may return to the “correct” time zone - BBC Russian Service . BBC Russian service. Date of treatment March 2, 2016.
- Spain Considers a New Time Zone . www.timeanddate.com. Date of treatment December 23, 2016.
- Lib.ru/ Classics: Bunin Ivan Alekseevich. Cursed days . az.lib.ru. Date of treatment March 6, 2018.
- New Year of Ivan Denisovich. Natalya Smirnova. Ark, No. 35 | Litbook.Ru , litbook.ru . Date of treatment November 21, 2016.
- Pole E. A. Research by A. L. Chizhevsky and elements of the frequency of reforms and military-political actions in Russia and the former USSR in the 19th-21st centuries (to the 115th anniversary of the birth of A. L. Chizhevsky) // Physics of the living. - 2010-01-01. - T. 18 , no. 2 . - ISSN 1023-2427 .