Alfred Marshall ( Eng. Alfred Marshall ; 1842 - 1924 ) is an English economist , one of the founders of the neoclassical trend in economic science , the head of its Cambridge school  .
|Date of Birth||July 26, 1842|
|Place of Birth||London , UK|
|Date of death||July 13, 1924 ( 81)|
|Place of death||Cambridge , UK|
|Place of work||Cambridge university|
|Famous students||Arthur Pigou , John Maynard Keynes|
|Known as||author of a theory that combines classical theory and marginalism|
|Awards and prizes|
Adam Smith Award
Marshall was born July 26, 1842 in the Bermondsey district of London in the family of an employee. In childhood, under the influence of his father and the example of his grandfather, he was preparing for the career of a priest. He studied at Eaton and Cambridge University , which he graduated in 1865. In 1865, while studying at St. John's College, Marshall took second place in mathematics and was enrolled in graduate school. He graduated from Cambridge University with honors. He taught mathematics at Cambridge, political economics at the University College of Bristol , from 1885 to 1908 he headed the department of political economy at his home university .
The scientist died at his home in Cambridge on July 13, 1924, at 82 years of age. He was buried in the parish cemetery of the Cambridge Ascension Church.
He taught economics at Cambridge University for most of his life. In 1890, his main work, The Principles of Economic Science published, which has been published in many editions and for several decades served as the main textbook in the USA, England and other countries.
Marshall's main contribution to economic science is the combination of classical theory and marginalism , which laid the foundations of modern microeconomics . A. Marshall is known primarily as the author of the theory of market pricing. He believed that the market value of a product is determined by the equilibrium of the marginal utility of the commodity and the marginal cost of its production. The graphic equivalent of this provision is the famous chart, called the “Marshall Cross” or “Marshall Scissors”. Marshall introduced into the economic theory the categories: “ elasticity of demand ”, “ consumer surplus ”.
A. Marshall considered it necessary to take state care of “the aspects of the life of poor workers, in which it is difficult for them to provide for themselves,” he regarded otherwise as “erroneous and immoral,” "Common" interests  .
In 1927, employees of the University of Cambridge to study the work of A. Marshall created the Marshall Society . Among the first members of society were well-known English economists: J. M. Keynes , N. Caldor , J. Robinson .
Currently, both teachers and students of Cambridge are members of the society. The company annually holds a number of events, including lectures, meetings with foreign experts, as well as an annual charity dinner ( Marshall Society Charity Dinner ). 
The Society publishes The Cambridge Economist.
- The pure theory of foreign trade and the pure theory of domestic values, L., 1879,
- “The Economics of Industry” (The Economics of Industry, 1879, co-authored with his wife Mary Paley ),
- "Principles of economic science" (Principles of Economics, 1890-1891),
- “Elements of the Economics of Industry” (Elements of the Economics of Industry, 1892),
- “Industry and trade” (Industry and Trade, 1919),
- “Money, Credit, and Trade” (Money, Credit and Commerce, 1922).
- Marshall Library of Economic Literature
- Cambridge School / V. S. Avtonomov // Big Russian Encyclopedia : [in 35 vol.] / Ch. ed. Yu.S. Osipov . - M .: Great Russian Encyclopedia, 2004—2017.
- http://www.imemo.ru/en/publ/2009/09016.pdf (inaccessible link) p. 12
- Marshallian Society website (Inaccessible link) . Date of treatment July 2, 2014. Archived July 14, 2014.
- Blaug M. Marshall, Alfred // 100 Great Economists before Keynes = Great Economists before Keynes: An introduction to the lives & works of one hundred great economists of the past. - SPb. : Economicus, 2008 .-- S. 205-209. - 352 p. - (Library of the Economic School, vol. 42). - 1,500 copies. - ISBN 978-5-903816-01-9 .
- Blaug M. Marshallian Economic Theory // Economic Thought in Retrospect = Economic Theory in Retrospect. - M .: Delo , 1994 .-- S. 306-394. - XVII, 627 p. - ISBN 5-86461-151-4 .
- Blumin I.G. Marshall Theory // Critique of bourgeois political economy: In 3 volumes. - M .: Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR , 1962. - T. I. Subjective school in bourgeois political economy. - S. 152-227. - VIII, 872 p. - 3,200 copies.
- Marshall Alfred // Lombard - Mesitol. - M .: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1974. - (The Great Soviet Encyclopedia : [in 30 vol.] / Ch. Ed. A. M. Prokhorov ; 1969-1978, vol. 15).
- Marshall, Alfred // Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary : in 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb. , 1890-1907.
- Schumpeter J. Chapter 4. Alfred Marshall (1842–1924) // Ten Great Economists from Marx to Keynes = Ten Great Economists: From Marx to Keynes. - M .: Gaidar Institute, 2011 .-- S. 138-161. - 400 p. - 1,000 copies. - ISBN 978-5-91129-075-7 .