Tanatology (from other Greek θάνατος - death and λόγος - teaching ) is a section of theoretical and practical medicine that studies the state of the body in the final stage of the pathological process, the dynamics and mechanisms of dying, the immediate causes of death , clinical, biochemical and morphological manifestations of the gradual cessation of life organism. This concept should not be confused with Russian philosophical thanatology .
The term "thanatology" in the use of medical and biological science was introduced at the suggestion of I. I. Mechnikov . The origins of thanatology were the outstanding scientists M.F.K.Bisha , Claude Bernard , R. Virkhov , I.I. Mechnikov , G.V. Shor and others, who laid the foundation for the study of death as a natural end to life .
At the beginning of the 20th century , it was customary to divide thanatology into general, which studied the statics and dynamics of death, morphological and pathofunctional changes, post-mortal phenomena, the interaction of a corpse with the environment, the technique of forensic or pathoanatomical research of a corpse, and private, which examined the types of death , the main and the immediate causes of death in specific diseases or conditions and their diagnosis on the corpse, as well as the cadaveric phenomena accompanying them.
In 1961, at the International Congress of Traumatologists in Budapest, a new medical discipline got its name - resuscitation , which in many aspects is closely related to thanatology. The field of scientific interests of resuscitation are pathofunctional processes that occur during dying, terminal conditions and the restoration of vital functions. While the area of interest of thanatology is more biased towards the pathomorphological aspects of dying and post-mortal changes observed in the corpse at various times after death under various external conditions, the features of the study of the corpse, as well as the diagnosis of causes of death.
Historical and anthropological studies of the attitude to death and burial in various cultures, in different historical epochs ( Philippe Aries , Louis-Vincent Toma , etc.) were developed.
- Forensic Medicine
- Pathological anatomy
- Forensic-medical examination
- Mechnikov I. I. Etudes of optimism. - Ed. 3rd - M .: Nauka , 1988 .-- 328 p. (1st edition - 1907; 2nd - 1964).
- Shor G.V. On the death of a person (introduction to thanatology). - SPb. : Publishing House of St. Petersburg State Medical University, 2002 .-- 272 p. - 1,000 copies. (1st edition - L .: Kubuch, 1925).
- Demichev A.V. Discourses of death: Introduction to philosophical thanatology. - St. Petersburg: INAPRESS , 1997 .-- 144 p.
- Ryazantsev S. Tanatology (the doctrine of death) / East European Institute of Psychoanalysis .. - SPb .: VEIP, 1994. - 380 p. - (Modern humanistic literature. Library of psychoanalytic literature). - 25,000 copies. - ISBN 5-85-084-004-8 . and death will take you
- Figures of Thanatos: The Art of Dying. Philosophical Almanac. Issue 1-5. - SPb., 1991-1998.
- Figures of Thanatos: The Art of Dying / St. Petersburg State. un-t; Under the total. ed. A.V. Demicheva, M.S. Uvarova. - St. Petersburg: Publishing House of St. Petersburg University, 1998. - 220 p. - ISBN 5-288-01607-0 .
- Grishkov A. M. Ontology of the funeral culture in the context of the development of thanatological representations: Dis. ... cand. Philos. sciences. Abstract . - M., 2003 .-- 200 p.