Indiana   ( eng. Indiana ) is a state in the northeastern United States , one of the so-called states of the Northeast Center. Area - 94 321 km ². Population - 6,516,922 people (15th place among the states; estimates for 2011). The capital and largest city is Indianapolis (Indianapolis). Other major cities are Fort Wayne , Evansville , Gary , South Bend , Hammond .
|"The staff of the tall man"|
The largest city
|6,516,922 ( 2011 )|
|density||69 people / km²|
|Total||94 321 km²|
|latitude||37 ° 47 's sh. at 41 ° 46 's. sh. ,|
|longitude||84 ° 49 'h. d. 88 ° 4 'h. d. ,|
Height above sea level
|December 11, 1816|
19 in a row
|before accepting status||Indiana Territory|
|Eric Holcomb ( P )|
|Indiana General Assembly|
|upper house||Indiana Senate|
|Lower Chamber||Indiana House of Representatives|
|Todd Young ( P )|
Michael Brown ( P )
House of Representatives
|80 counties: UTC -5 / -4|
12 counties: UTC-6 / -5
The official nickname is “ Hoosier State ”.
In antiquity, a developed Mississippian culture flourished in the state - part of the archaeological culture of "builders of the mounds . " By the time Europeans arrived, Indian tribes inhabited Miami , potawatomi , pianasho , delaware, and kikapu .
The first Europeans settled in the region were the French . In 1679, the territory was explored by French Norman Robert de La Sall. In 1725, these lands were annexed to the colony "New France" . The first French settlement founded by the Jesuits was Vincennes. Subsequently, the region moved from the French to the British. They controlled Vincennes (Vincennes) from 1763 until 1779. As a result of the War of Independence , troops of the American militia , under the command of George Rogers Clark, gained control of the territory.
In 1800, the Indiana Territory was established, encompassing modern Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin , as well as parts of Michigan and Minnesota . The governor of the territory was William Henry Harrison , later the President of the United States . After the battle on the Tippekano in 1811, the Indians were finally pushed out of their lands.
Indiana was admitted to the Union on December 11, 1816 , becoming the 19th state in the United States and the second state established in the Northwest Territory. The first state constitution was adopted a little earlier, June 29, 1816. Then, on February 10, 1851 , another one was adopted for it, which has been in effect from November 1, 1851, until now.
The state capital was initially the city of Cordion, but due to the fact that it was in the south of the state, and not in its center, it was decided to specifically build a new city and make it the capital. Thus, in 1820, Indianapolis was founded, and in 1825 it received the status of state capital.
In 1834, the first railway appeared in Indiana, which greatly contributed to the development of the state. In the Civil War, Indiana supported the Northerners and was the first Western state to mobilize its citizens, who took part in all significant battles - from first to last. The state mobilized 126 infantry regiments, 26 artillery batteries and 13 cavalry regiments. In total, during the years of the Civil War, 208,367 people were mobilized, of whom 24,416 people were killed. More than 50,000 were injured of varying severity.
Geography and climate
The area of Indiana is 94 321 km² (38th place among the states), of which 98.5% is land. In the north, Indiana is bordered by the state of Michigan and has access to Lake Michigan , in the east is bordered by the state of Ohio , in the south - by the state of Kentucky (along the Ohio River ), in the west - by Illinois .
Indiana's territory is divided into the northern lake region, central plains and southern hilly foothills of the Cumberland Plateau. The main rivers are Ohio and Wobash . The climate is temperate continental, with hot, humid summers and cold winters.
According to estimates, in 2008 the population of the state was 6,376,792 people, which is 4.9% more than in 2000.
Race composition of the population:
- 85.8% white
- 8.4% African Americans
- 3.5% Hispanic
- 1.0% Asians
- 0.3% Indians
- 1.2% Representatives of mixed races
Religious composition of the population:
- Christians - 82%
- Protestants - 62%
- Catholics - 19%
- The remaining Christians - 1%
- Other religions - 1%
- Atheists - 17%
- See also the Indiana Cities category .
Populated areas with the number of residents above 30 thousand according to the 2010-2014 estimate.
- Indianapolis - 848.8
- Fort Wayne - 258.5
- Evansville - 120.3
- South Bend - 101.2
- - 85,9
- Bloomington - 83.6
- - 81,8
- Hammond - 79.0
- Gary - 78.5
- - 70.1
- Lafayette - 67.9
- Terre Hot - 61.1
- - 56.9
- Anderson - 55.6
- Noblesville - 55.1
- - 52.7
- - 51.2
- - 48.0
- - 46,8
- Columbus - 45.4
- - 36.9
- Richmond - 36.6
- - 36.5
- - 32.1
- - 31,2
- - 30,5
In 2005, the state's GDP was $ 214 billion, and the average per capita income was $ 31,150. Indiana is one of the top ten coal mining states, and oil , natural gas, and limestone are also mined.
In agriculture, the main crops are corn and soybeans (the state is located in the so-called Corn Belt ). Watermelons , tomatoes , mint , grapes and tobacco are also grown . Developed pig and beef cattle; more than 70% of the state is agricultural land.
The main area of heavy industry is Kalumet in the northwest; car parts, aluminum , chemicals , medicines , furniture, musical instruments are produced. The car industry is represented by the Subaru Tribeca car and the manufacturer of diesel engines Cummins .
- Hoosier group
- Richmond group
- Art Museum of Indiana University
- United States of America // Peace Atlas / comp. and prepare. to ed. PKO "Cartography" in 2009; Ch. ed. G. V. Pozdnyak . - M .: PKO "Cartography": Onyx, 2010. - p. 168-169. - ISBN 978-5-85120-295-7 (Cartography). - ISBN 978-5-488-02609-4 (Onyx).
- Indiana // Dictionary of geographical names of foreign countries / resp. ed. A.M. Komkov . - 3rd ed., Pererab. and add. - M .: Nedra , 1986. - p. 134.
- in.gov (English) - the official website of the state of Indiana