Jozef Goluchowski ( Polish: Wojciech Józef Gołuchowski , coat of arms of Leliv ; April 11 or 14, 1797 , Lonchki Kuharske in the Tarnow Voivodeship, Galicia - November 22, 1858 , Garbach ) - Polish philosopher and agronomist, professor of philosophy at the University of Vilna ( 1823 - 1824 ), one of heralds of romanticism in Polish philosophy.
|Date of Birth||April 11 or 14, 1797|
|Date of death||November 22, 1858|
|School / tradition||romanticism|
Since 1809, he studied at the gymnasium of the Theresian noble academy in Vienna , studied at the same academy in the philosophical department, later studied at the University of Warsaw (graduated with a master 's degree , 1820 ) and at the same time taught mathematics and Greek at the Warsaw Lyceum.
In 1821 he participated in a competition for the position of professor of philosophy at Vilnius University, which was freed after the death of I. G. Abikht . The competition was won in June of that year (13 votes in favor, 1 against), but the appointment was signed only at the end of December 1822 . Meanwhile, in the summer of 1821, Golukhovsky made a trip to Paris , where he introduced himself to Prince Adam Chartorysky , trustee of the University of Vilnius, and improved his philosophical training in Germany . In August 1821, he passed summa cum laude exams at the University of Heidelberg and was awarded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy . Until the end of the year and in 1822 he stayed in Erlangen , where he became first a student, and then a friend of Schelling . Under his influence, he wrote the book “Die Philosophie in ihrem Verhältnisse zum Leben ganzer Völker und einzelner Menschen“ .
From Germany, Golukhovsky returned to Warsaw , where he improved his studies in the natural sciences, and arrived in Vilna in mid- 1823 . He delivered an introductory lecture on October 27, 1823 ; his lectures were very successful, attracting a large heterogeneous audience. This, against the background of the investigation launched by N. N. Novosiltsev in the case of secret student societies of philomats and filarets , attracted the attention of the authorities. By order of the rector, Golukhovsky’s lectures were discontinued in January 1824 , and by decree on March 14, 1824, Golukhovsky was dismissed and expelled from Vilna (together with professors I. Danilovich , I. Lelevel and M. Bobrovsky   [3 ] ] ).
In Warsaw, he participated in the activities of the Society of Friends of Science ( Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk ), but this caused displeasure of the governor of the Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duke Constantine . Not wanting to harm society, Golukhovsky refused to participate in it and since 1826 settled in the village of Garbach near Opatov. The abandoned estate brought into exemplary condition. During the uprising of 1830-1831 he took part in the social and political life of Warsaw, then returned to the village, where he spent the rest of his life, on rare trips abroad. Died in Garbach, buried in a parish church in Momina.
He received a philosophical education in Heidelberg and Erlangen , where he studied with Schelling . The views were formed under the influence of Schelling and are characterized as idealistic and irrationalistic . Theories of social contract Golukhovsky contrasted the concept of society as an organism with a certain hierarchy and inequality of parts. A nation was seen as a divine creation with its own national spirit; the task of philosophy was understood in the expression of this spirit.
In the 1840-1850s he wrote works on the peasant question ( "O chłopach" , "Kwestia włościańska w Polsce oraz Rozbiór kwestii włościańskiej w Polsce iw Rosji w r. 1850" ). The main philosophical work “Dumanie nad najwyższymi zagadnieniami człowieka poprzedzone historycznem rozwinięciem głownych systematów filozoficznych od Kanta do najnowszych czasów” came out posthumously (Vilna, 1861 ).
- Die Philosophie in ihrem Verhältnisse zum Leben ganzer Völker und einzelner Menschen. Erlangen, 1822 (Russian translation by D. Wellansky, see below)
- Philosophy related to the life of entire nations and every person. Translation by D. Wellansky . St. Petersburg, 1834 .
- Russian biographical dictionary. Dabelov — Dyadkovsky. St. Petersburg: Printing house of the public benefit society, 1905. P. 73
- Vilniaus universiteto istorija 1803-1940. Vilnius: Mokslas, 1977. P. 31 (lit.)
- Russian biographical dictionary. Betancourt — Byakster. St. Petersburg: Printing House of the Main Directorate of the Ancestors, 1908. P. 121.
- Golukhovsky, Joseph // Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron : 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb. , 1890-1907.
- Philosophical Encyclopedia. T. 1: A - Diderot. Moscow: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1960.P. 384
- Polski Słownik Biograficzny. T. VIII: Girdwoyń Michał - Gross Adam. Wrocław — Warszawa — Kraków — Gdańsk: Zakład Narodowy imienia Osslińskich, Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk, 1959-1960. S. 262-264. (polish)
- Thoughts and Svetniіkі Belarusі. Entsyklapedychny davennik. Minsk: Belorussian Entsyklapedyya, 1995. ISBN 985-11-0016-1 . S. 387-389. (belor.)