Li Lysan ( Chinese 李立三 , pinyin : Lǐ Lìsān ; nee Li Longzhi ( Chinese 李隆 郅 , pinyin : Lǐ Lóngzhì ); November 18, 1899 , Lilin County, Hunan Province - June 22, 1967 , Beijing ) - Chinese revolutionary, member of the Chinese Communist Party , one of its founders. He served as Secretary of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPC , Head of the Propaganda Department of the Central Committee of the CPC , Deputy Chairman of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions . In the late 1920s, thanks to his talent as an organizer and speaker, as well as his earned influence in the party, he in fact acted as general secretary of the CCP .
|Birth name||Lee Longzhi|
|Date of Birth||November 18, 1899|
|Place of Birth||Lilin, Hunan|
|Date of death||June 22, 1967 (67 years old)|
|Place of death||Beijing|
|Spouse||Elizaveta Pavlovna Kishkina |
Li Lysan was born on November 18, 1899 in the Lilin County of Hunan Province into a landowner family. At birth, he received the name Lunchzhi. Received primary home education. Li's father, as a teacher , introduced him to classical Chinese literature and poetry. In 1915, Li left to continue his studies at a secondary school in Changsha , where he met Mao Zedong . After leaving school, Lee goes to Beijing to continue his education.
In Beijing, Lee learns about recruiting students to send to study in France . In September 1919, Li and a group of students arrived in France, where he immediately joined the groups of Chinese workers and students fighting for their rights and imbued with the ideas of communism . In his free time, to earn a living, works as an assistant turner . In the spring of 1921, together with activists of the Chinese student movement such as Zhao Shiyan , Chen Gongpei , Liu Bojian and others, Li forms the Chinese Communist Society, organizes the work of the League of Chinese Workers and Students . In October of the same year, the French authorities sent back to China for active participation in the demonstrations of Chinese students in Lyon .
Returning to China, Lee joins the newly created Chinese Communist Party , is engaged in party work in Shanghai . At the beginning of 1922 he was sent to his native Hunan province to organize a local labor movement. In Anyang, he founded a school for workers, organized and led a city party cell. At this time, Lee is actively advocating to attract new CCP members. Thus, while working as director of the Anyuang coal mine club, he persuaded many workers to join the CCP: at the end of 1924, the CCP had 900 members throughout China, of whom 300 were workers in the Anyuan coal mine. Creates a professional union of miners of Anyuansky coal mine, takes an active part in the creation of the trade union of workers of the mining company "Hanepin" ( Chinese : 汉 冶 萍 公司).
In March 1923, he was appointed secretary of the Wuhan Party Committee of the CCP. In April 1924 he was transferred to work in the Shanghai Party Committee, where he was directly responsible for the organization of the Shanghai labor movement. In 1925, he served as chairman of the Shanghai Federation of Trade Unions . He leads the strike movement of workers, organizes strikes at foreign enterprises in Shanghai. In October 1925 he left for Moscow , where Li Lisan was elected a member of the Executive Committee of the Profintern at the Congress of the Profintern.
In May 1926, at the Third All-China Congress of Workers, Li was elected a member of the executive committee of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions and held the position of head of the organizational department of the federation. In September of the same year, after the capture of Wuhan by the troops of the National Revolutionary Army of China, he was appointed head of the Wuhan branch of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions. In Wuhan, as a representative of the labor movement throughout China, he organizes and leads anti-foreign demonstrations and rallies of workers. In January 1927, he directed the capture by the NRA fighters of the territory of the English concession in Hankow .
Following the results of the V Congress of the CPC, he is elected a member of the CPC Central Committee , introduced into the Politburo of the CPC Central Committee, and is appointed head of the working department of the CPC Central Committee.
After the defeat of the Revolution of 1925-1927 , in response to the counter-revolutionary coup of Wang Jingwei and Chiang Kai-shek , Li, along with Tang Pingshan and Dan Zhongxia, submitted a proposal for a major uprising in Nanchang for consideration by the CPC Central Committee. During the Nanchang Uprising, he leads the political department of the General Staff of the uprising. And after the defeat of the Canton uprising in December 1927, Li was appointed secretary of the provincial party committee of the CPC in Guangdong province and sent to Hong Kong to organize the creation of a party committee and coordinate armed resistance in rural areas of the province.
The Li Lisan Line
In June 1928, at the VI Congress of the CPC , which was held in Moscow, was re-elected a member of the CPC Central Committee and appointed secretary of the agricultural department of the CPC Central Committee. Later he occupies the post of head of the Propaganda Department of the CPC Central Committee. At the end of 1929 and during 1930 , when his friend Xiang Zhongfa was the CCP’s general secretary , he actually played a leading role in the party and held ultra-left positions (in the conditions of the decline of the revolutionary movement in China, he advocated the immediate organization of armed uprisings in cities and the USSR’s involvement in the war with Japan , etc.). He initiated the decision of the Politburo of the CPC Central Committee dated 11.6.1930 "On the new revolutionary upsurge and victory of the revolution, initially in one or more provinces."
On September 28, 1930, he was removed from the Standing Committee of the Politburo of the CPC Central Committee . In October 1930, the Executive Committee of the Comintern sent a letter to the CPC Central Committee with extensive criticism of the so-called "Li Lysan's lines." The 4th plenum of the Central Committee of the CPC in January 1931 condemned the leftist course of Li Lysan. Under these conditions, Li Lisan was invited to leave for the USSR . In December 1930, Lee arrives in Moscow, where he will live for the next 15 years. While in the USSR, Li repeatedly appealed to the Soviet authorities to allow him to leave the country in order to return to China to be included in the struggle against the Japanese aggressors , but was refused every time.
In 1938, he was arrested in the USSR by the NKVD organs: “I am not guilty of anything either against the Chinese Communist Party or the Soviet people. My conscience is clear, ”he said then  . Before the war he was released  .
In 1945, Li became a member of the North-East Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, and in January 1946 he returned to China and immediately joined the revolutionary struggle. During the Civil War in China, he works in the North-East Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, holds the position of head of the Bureau of Industry Department, organizes uprisings in the 63rd and 93rd armies of the so-called. Yunnan clique. In 1948, at the IV Congress of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions, she was elected its first deputy chairman.
After the formation of the PRC, he holds the post of Minister of Labor of the PRC. In 1956, the VIII Congress of the CCP was held , at which Lee advocates self-criticism for adhering to the leftist course, admits the mistakes of the past, which is universally approved and Lee once again retains his membership in the CCP Central Committee. In 1960, he was appointed secretary of the North China Bureau of the CPC Central Committee.
During the Cultural Revolution, he became the target of bullying by the Hungweibins . June 22, 1967 committed suicide.
In March 1980, Li was rehabilitated and officially declared "an outstanding member of the CCP, a great revolutionary and leader of the Chinese labor movement . " One of the streets of his hometown of Lilin in Hunan Province is named after Li Lysan.
During his exile in the USSR, Lee married Elizabeth Pavlovna Kishkina . After Lee's death, his widow spent eight years in solitary confinement in a prison for especially important prisoners, in almost complete isolation. After the liberation, she remained to live in China, being a citizen of the PRC.
The daughter of Li Lisan and Elizabeth Kishkina, Li Innan, is a professor at Peking University of Foreign Languages , a simultaneous interpreter .
- Patrick Lescot . Before Mao: The Untold Story of Li Lisan and the Creation of Communist China ( Rus. Patrick Lescot . What happened before Mao: The Untold Story of Li Lisan and the Creation of Communist China). Trans. from the French by Steven Rendall . - N. Y .: Ecco. 2004. - ISBN 0-06-008464-2 . (eng.)