Assigning an economy is one of the four principles of production , an economy with the predominant economic role of hunting , gathering and fishing , which corresponds to the most ancient stage of the economic and cultural history of mankind. This stage is called “appropriating” rather tentatively, since the activities of hunters, gatherers and fishers are not limited to simple appropriation, but include a number of rather complex issues in both labor organization and processing of products that require various technical skills.
- 1 History
- 2 Gatherers and hunters today
- 3 See also
- 4 Literature
- 5 Links
The emergence of the most ancient economic and cultural types with an appropriating economy refers to the initial stages of the formation of mankind. On the eve of the emergence of agriculture and cattle breeding , i.e., approx. 12 thousand years ago, economic and cultural types with an appropriating economy included forest hunters and collectors of tropical forests in the hot zone and temperate forests , vagrant hunters and collectors of mountains and plains of the arid zone , semi-saddle fishermen and collectors of sea coasts and delta regions, hunters for large herd animals, etc. These were, apparently, a few scattered groups that led in some areas a predominantly mobile stray lifestyle within their hunting grounds, and in others a semi and even almost settled. An ethnographic study of the economic and cultural types that have survived to this day with an appropriating economy has shown that they are characterized by a seasonal-moving lifestyle, collective ownership of the basic means of production and the collective distribution of labor products, the archaic nature of social structures, the scarcity of material culture, the absence of institutionalized power , and animistic forms of religious representation.
Gatherers and hunters today
Gatherers and hunters, where their subsistence economy has not yet been destroyed by the commodity economy , in their social development have not yet gone beyond the boundaries of early primitive communal structures. To maintain their existence in the hot zone, they are often forced to move in small local groups along vast "forage" territories ( Bushmen ! Kung in Kalahari , natives of Australia , etc.). In cold countries, even where marine fishing provides an annual settled population, seasonal mobility of a part of the population is vital. Representatives of the economic and cultural type of coastal semi-settled fishermen in northwestern North America ( Tlingit , Haida , Quakyutl , Salishi , etc.) reached the highest level of socio-economic development and significant settledness for the bulk of the population. As far back as the 19th century, their economy was complex, and their way of life was sedentary with seasonal migration of part of the population. Now they are completely sedentary, as they are deprived of their hunting and fishing lands. In some countries, such archaic groups are racially, economically, and socially oppressed. Such a policy exists, for example, in South Africa in relation to the Bushmen and Hottentots . Other states may take care of such groups: for example, in Vietnam, small mountain peoples of hunter-gatherers ( hands , arems , etc.) changed their wandering way of life to a settled one; live in permanent settlements built by the government and master the technique of farming. The Adi tribe in India ( Arunachal Pradesh state ) generally lives in isolation from the outside world and access not only to foreigners, but also local ones is limited to them.
- Production principle
- Economic and cultural types
- Productive forces and the historical process . L.E. Grinin // Volgograd :, 2003.- p. 75-89.- ISBN 5-7218-0284-7