Polina (Pearl) Osipovna Efrussi (also Efrusi , German: Perla Ephrussi ;  August 22, 1876 , Chisinau, Bessarabian Province - October 29, 1942 , Mineralnye Vody  ) - Soviet psychologist and teacher, Doctor of Philosophy, professor of the Leningrad Institute for the study of the brain and mental activity.
|Polina (Pearl) Osipovna Efrussi|
|Date of Birth||August 22, 1876|
|Place of Birth||Chisinau , Bessarabian province|
|Date of death||October 29, 1942 (66 years old)|
|Place of death||Mineral water|
|A country||Russian Empire, USSR|
|Place of work||Institute for the Study of the Brain and Mental Activities|
|Alma mater||University of Gottingen|
|Academic degree||doctor of philosophical science|
Pearl (Polina Osipovna) Efrussi was born in Chisinau in the family of a banker and grain merchant, merchant of the first guild Joseph Isaakovich Efrusi (in other documents Aron-Yosif Itsikovich Efrusi) and his wife Rivka (Revecca) Abramovna Blanck, who entered into marriage there in 1856. Together with his brother-in-law, his father owned a bank office in Chisinau, as well as a grain export company located in Odessa at the intersection of Pochtovaya and Elizavetinsky streets. In 1885-1893 she studied at the city gymnasium for girls, until 1897 she worked as a teacher of arithmetic at the Chisinau Jewish Women's Vocational School (Jewish Colonization Society).  In 1897-1900 she studied at the University of Berlin , in 1901 - at the University of Breslau , in 1902-1904 - at the University of Gottingen , where she worked in the laboratory of experimental psychology under the guidance of G. E. Müller and defended her thesis “Experimental Approach” to the doctrine of memory ”with a description of the classical experiment on the role of repetition in the processes of memorization (“ Experimental Beiträge zur Lehre vom Gedächtnis ”, 1904, published as a separate book)  .
Upon returning to Russia, she settled in Petersburg . In 1912, she translated from German the book of Wilhelm Grube (1855-1908) “The spiritual culture of China : literature, religion, cult” (St. Petersburg: Brockhaus - Efron ). She was also involved in the translation of psychological literature (including the work of Karl Stumpf “Phenomena and Psychic Functions”).
In 1918, together with N. N. Bakhtin , A. V. Lunacharsky , M. V. Bogdanov-Berezovsky and others, she became one of the founders of the courses of the word of art (later the Institute of the Living Word), taught a course in the psychology of speech and thinking. She headed the psychological laboratory of the Pedagogical Museum. He is the author of numerous works in the field of experimental psychology , child pathopsychology, psychology of school education, defectology (deviations of behavior and mental retardation), forensic and genetic psychology, eidetic . In 1912-1925, together with E. I. Tikheeva and L. I. Chulitskaya-Tikheeva, she was the editor of collections of the series “New Ideas in Pedagogy”.
In the 1930s, she lived with her sister - a pediatrician Z. O. Michnik - in the new "house of specialists" on Lesnoy Avenue. In 1942, with her sister, Lensovet was evacuated from the besieged Leningrad to the North Caucasus , where both were captured by the Germans and, after an unsuccessful suicide attempt, were shot at a glass factory in Mineralnye Vody.
- Brother - Russian economist and journalist Boris Osipovich (Bentsion Ioselevich) Efrusi (1865-1897).
- Sister - Sofya Osipovna (Sura Iosifovna) Efrusi (married to Lazarkevich), a teacher of arithmetic at the Chisinau Jewish Jewish Professional School of the Jewish Colonization Society, wife of journalist and chemist Nikifor Aleksandrovich Lazarkevich (Fore).
- Nephew - Yakov Isaakovich Efrussi ( Efrusi ; 1900-1996), an inventive engineer in the field of radio engineering and television, the author of memories of the years spent in the Gulag  . Another nephew (the son of his brother, a Moscow chemist and industrialist Samuil Osipovich Efrussi) is a French geneticist and molecular biologist Boris Samoilovich Efrussi . 
- Nieces (daughters of sister Beyla (Betty) Iosifovna Zaks, 1867-1931) - Anna Borisovna Zaks , museum historian, and Sarah Borisovna Zaks (1898-1981), philologist and methodologist.
- Cousins (on the mother’s side) - writer and journalist Julius (Yoel) Aronovich Kligman , published in the Soviet era under the pseudonym “Yuri Kalugin”; chemist, public figure and publicist Reuben Markovich Blank .
- Experimental Beiträge zur Lehre vom Gedächtnis. Inaugural-Disseration zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde einer hohen philosophischen Fakultät der Georg-Augusts-Universität vorgelegt von Perla Ephrussi aus Kischinew. Leipzig : Verlag von Johann Ambrosius Barth, 1904.  Reissue in two parts - in the journal Zeitschrift für Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnesorgane, 37: 56-103, 161-234, Berlin , 1904/1905.
- Perseveration as a factor in normal mental life. A report read in the Russian Society of Normal and Pathological Psychology on May 12, 1909. SPb: Printing house of P.P. Soikin, 1910. - 19 p.
- The success of psychology in Russia. The results of the congress on psychoneurology in Moscow on January 10-15, 1923, Petrograd , 1923.
- Hooliganism Prevention and School. Moscow : State Publishing House of the RSFSR , 1928.
- Essays on the psychology of a school-age child. 2nd edition. Moscow: Education Worker, 1928.
- The psychology of early childhood. Moscow — Leningrad, 1931.
- School failure and repetition. Moscow — Leningrad, 1932; Moscow: Education, 1998.
- Some publications also include Paula Ephrussi and Polina Ephrussi .
- Black Book : According to the memoirs of the artist L.N. Tarabukin, the sisters P.O. Efrussi and Z.O. Michnik were shot on October 29, 1942, among 485 Jews of Essentuki.
- Memoirs of O. G. Anikst : This school was based on the funds of Israel’s first guild merchant Lazarevich Michnik and his wife Feigi (Fani) Abramovna Michnik in memory of their daughter Rosalia Izrailevna Michnik (the son of the Michnik spouses was married to Zinaida Michnik , Polina Efrussi's sister) .
- Memoirs of N.O. Lossky
- Ya. I. Efrussi “Who is on“ E “?” : Ya. I. Efrussi is the son of Polina Efrussi’s brother Isaac Aron-Iosifovich Efrussi and Anna Menkas.
- Samuil Osipovich (Shmil Iosifovich) Efrussi was a graduate of Novorossiysk University and a member of the Russian Physicochemical Society .
- Experimentalle Beiträge zur Lehre vom Gedächtnis