The Giza Pyramid Complex is a complex of ancient monuments on the Giza Plateau in the suburbs of Cairo , the modern capital of Egypt . Located at a distance of about 8 km towards the center of the Libyan Desert from the old city of Giza on the Nile River , about 25 km southwest of the center of Cairo. It is believed that the buildings were created in the Ancient Kingdom of Ancient Egypt during the reign of the IV - VI dynasties ( XXVI - XXIII centuries BC ).
|UNESCO World Heritage Site No. 86|
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The Cheops Pyramid (Khufu) is the only remaining monument of the seven wonders of the ancient world . Also a national treasure of Egypt.
This ancient Egyptian necropolis consists of the Khufu Pyramid (known as the Great Pyramid and the Cheops Pyramid), the somewhat smaller Hafra pyramid less than two hundred meters to the southwest and the relatively modest size of the Menkaur Pyramid a few hundred meters further southwest, as well as a number smaller satellite pyramids, known as the Queen's Pyramids and Valley Pyramids.
The surface of the pyramids was covered with polished white limestone slabs. After the fall of ancient Egyptian civilization, limestone was stolen by local residents for their own needs.
The Great Sphinx is located on the east side of the complex facing east. Many scientists continue to believe that the Sphinx has a portrait resemblance to Hafra.
The monolith used in the memorial temple of Menkaur - its weight is estimated at more than 200 tons - is the heaviest on the Giza plateau. The colossal statue of the seated king from the central chapel of the Temple of Menkaur is one of the largest in the era of the Ancient Kingdom .
Giza Plateau Map
Four main cemeteries were found on the Giza plateau: a cemetery in the west, east, south, and in the central part.
|1. Pyramid of Cheops|
2. Chefren's Pyramid
18. The pits in which the solar boats are found
Khufu Pyramid Complex (Cheops)
The pyramid of Khufu (Cheops) , the second pharaoh of the IV dynasty , was the very first and largest of the pyramids built on the Giza plateau. Prior to this, the pyramids were built in Dakhshur - in particular, there are two pyramids built by the pharaoh Snofru , the father of Khufu. But Khufu chose a place 40 kilometers from Dakhshur.
The base of the pyramid was built on a rock, which was leveled to avoid tilting. The initial peak of the pyramid was 146.7 meters from the base, but later the top was lost, currently the height of the pyramid is 137.3 meters. Until 1880, when two towers of the Cologne Cathedral were built on, the Cheops Pyramid was considered the tallest building in the world  .
Initially, the pyramid was lined with turkish limestone , the side of its base was 232.4 meters. But later, the lining was almost completely lost. Currently, the sides of its foundation are 230.4 meters, and the base area is 5.4 hectares. The angle of inclination of the walls is 52 ° 52 '. About 2.5 million stone blocks went to the construction of the pyramid, the volume of each is more than 1 cubic meter. However, this pyramid was used as a quarry in the Middle Ages, because of which part of the blocks is now missing  .
The initial entrance to the pyramid was located at an altitude of 15.63 meters on the north side of the pyramid. But another entrance is currently being used, located almost in the center of the north side 10 meters lower than the previous one. This entrance was cut through by ancient robbers 
Inside the pyramid contains three chambers. The dimensions of the first chamber are 8 by 14 meters, and the height is 3.5 meters. It is located at a depth of about 30 meters below the base. She was not finished. The second chamber is located exactly below the peak at an altitude of about 20 meters above the base. Its dimensions are 5.7 by 5.2 meters, it has a vaulted ceiling up to 6.7 meters high. This cell, which was formerly called the "tomb of the Queen" was also not finished. The third chamber, called the "tomb of the king", is located at an altitude of 42.3 meters above the base just south of the axis of the pyramid. Its dimensions are 10.4 by 5.2 meters, height - 5.8 meters. Unlike other cameras, it was finished. Its walls are faced with granite slabs, which are carefully polished and fitted to each other on the sides. The ceiling is formed of nine heavy monoliths, above it there are five discharge chambers, their total height is 17 meters. The upper unloading chamber has a gable roof consisting of large blocks that distribute weight in order to reduce the burden on the burial chamber. In this chamber on its western side is an empty sarcophagus carved from a piece of brown-gray granite. There are no inscriptions on it, it is badly damaged. Near all the cameras are smaller cameras (“hallways”), interconnected by corridors or mines. Some mines lead to dead ends  .
The large gallery leading to the burial chamber has a length of 47 meters and a height of 8.5 meters, the tilt angle is 26 °. Its walls are faced with polished limestone slabs laid in 8 layers, which overlap the next one by 5-6 centimeters  .
Near the pyramid of Cheops, the ruins of the upper (memorial) temple, found in 1939 by the Egyptian archaeologist Abu Safe, have been preserved. After the war, excavations were completed by the French archaeologist Jean-Philippe Lauer . According to studies, the temple was 52.5 meters long (100 Egyptian elbows). It was built from turkish limestone. In his yard there were 38 square pillars of granite. In front of the sanctuary was the lobby, in which there were 12 exactly the same pillars. On two sides of the lobby were cameras in which probably the " sun rooks " were kept. Another similar camera was found to the left of the road to the lower temple. In 1954, two more similar chambers were discovered, in one of which was a perfectly preserved boat 36 meters long, created from cedar . Later, a special pavilion with a pyramid was built for her  .
According to ancient historians, the Cheops pyramid was surrounded by a stone wall. Her remains are preserved. The wall was 3 meters thick, the distance to the pyramid was 10.5 meters  .
Companion Pyramids of the Cheops Pyramid
In the east of the Cheops pyramid there are 3 companion pyramids. Probably their location in the east (usually satellite pyramids were built south of the main pyramid) is explained by the features of the area. They are oriented from north to south, higher ones are located north. Pyramids are designated as G1-a , G1-b and G1-c . The base side of the first is 49.5 meters, the second is 49 meters, and the third is 46.9. The base of the rock beneath them did not level out, which is why the bases are not quite square. The slope of the walls is about 52 °. The pyramids were lined. Next to each of them was a stone fence, a memorial chapel. There is one burial chamber in each pyramid, next to them are hallways, into which a sheer shaft leads. Near the first pyramid there is a camera with a "sun rook"   .
The pyramids are well preserved, only the lining is missing. Probably the pyramids were intended for the Khufu wives. Probably east of the first pyramid, they were going to create another pyramid, which should be large, but even the burial chamber was not finished in it. Archaeologist George Reisner suggested that this pyramid was intended for Queen Hetepherez , mother of Khufu, whose tomb was robbed. As a result, the queen was reburied in a secret tomb, carved into the rock to the north. This tomb, which is the only untouched burial of a member of the royal family of the Old Kingdom , was discovered by Reisner in 1925  .
Eastern tombs ( mastaba ) are located east of the Khufu pyramid and include the cemetery G 7000. Here, some members of the Khufu family are buried, as well as priests of the V — VI dynasties  . About 40 mastabs have survived. Now they are difficult to access, and the finds made in them are stored in the vaults of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo  .
Western tombs contain more than 100 mastabs belonging to the period of IV – VI dynasties  . Some of them are named according to mastab numbers, some according to the names of archaeologists who examined them  . .
|Abu Bakr Excavations||V and VI dynasty||(1949-53)|
|Cemetery G 1000||V and VI dynasty||Reisner (1903-05)|
|Cemetery G 1100||V and VI dynasty||Reisner (1903-05)|
|Cemetery G 1200||Mostly IV Dynasty||Reisner (1903-05)|
|Cemetery G 1300||V and VI dynasty||Reisner (1903-05)|
|Cemetery G 1400||V and VI dynasty||Reisner (1903-05|
|Cemetery G 1500||Reisner (1931?)|
|Cemetery G 1600||V dynasty and later||Reisner (1931)|
|Cemetery G 1900||Reisner (1931)|
|Cemetery G 2000||V and VI dynasty||Reisner (1905-06)|
|Cemetery G 2100||IV and V dynasty and later||Reisner (1931)|
|Cemetery G 2200||Late IV or early V dynasty||Reisner?|
|Cemetery G 2300||V and VI dynasty||Reisner (1911-13)|
|Cemetery G 2400||V and VI dynasty||Reisner (1911-13)|
|Cemetery G 2500||Reisner|
|Cemetery G 3000||VI dynasty||Fisher and Eckley Case Jr (1915)|
|Cemetery G 4000||IV dynasty and later||Junker and Reisner (1931)|
|Cemetery G 6000||V dynasty||Reisner (1925-26)|
|Junker Cemetery (West)||Later ancient kingdom||Junker (1926-7)|
|Steindorff cemetery||V and VI dynasty||Steindorff (1903-07)|
|Junker Cemetery (East)||Later ancient kingdom||Junker|
The burial places of the southern tombs date from the reigns of the 2nd – 3rd dynasties and the 5th – 6th dynasties  . More than 10 mastabs have survived. Now they are difficult to access, and the finds made in them are stored in the vaults of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo  .
The graves of some members of the royal family are included. Dated by IV and V dynasties and later  .
|G 8172 (LG 86)||Nebemakhet|
|G 8158 (LG 87)||Nikaure|
|G 8156 (LG 88)||Persenet|
|G 8154 (LG 89)||Sekhemkare|
|G 8080 (LG 92)||Iunmin|
|G 8978||Khamerernebty I|
Hafra Pyramid Complex (Chefren)
The pyramid of the pharaoh Hafra (Chefren) is located southwest of the pyramid of Cheops. The initial height of the pyramid was 143.9 meters, it was inferior to the Cheops pyramid 3 meters. Currently, the height of the pyramid is 136.4 meters. The Chefren pyramid has a greater slope of the walls (52 ° 20 ') and a shorter base length (initially 215.3 meters, currently 210.5 meters), which makes it visually taller than the Cheops pyramid. In addition, it is located at the highest point of the necropolis, which enhances optical illusion  .
In the Chefren pyramid, there are two entrances located on the northern wall. One is at the base level, the second at a height of 15 meters. From the second exit you can directly get into the burial chamber. From the first entrance, the tunnel goes down to a depth of 10 meters, then there is a flat section, and then the corridor goes up and flows into the main corridor. Also in the lower corridor there is a small branch leading to the incomplete chamber  .
The burial chamber is located near the axis of the pyramid. It is stretched from east to west by 14.2 meters, the width of the chamber is 5 meters, height - 6.8 meters. The ceiling in it is vaulted. In the chamber is a sarcophagus of polished granite with a broken lid  .
The memorial temple of Hafra was located at a considerable distance east of the pyramid. As early as the 18th century AD e. his condition was good, but later the locals stole the stones that made up his walls. Judging by the ruins, it was located on an area of 145 by 45 meters and was placed on a special granite terrace. Inside there were five prayer houses, as well as a courtyard, on which there were 12 sculptures depicting Hafra. On the sides of the temple, 5 cameras were found for the "sunny rooks"  .
A stone road 5 meters wide departed from the Memorial, which led to the Lower Temple, which is better known as the "Granite Temple". It was located southeast of the Great Sphinx in front of a modern viewing terrace. His form was like a big mastaba. The dimensions of the temple were 45 by 45 meters, height - 12 meters. Its central hall housed 23 statues of Hafra from alabaster and slate , 16 columns of granite. There were two entrances to the temple, 2 sphinxes lying nearby  .
Around the pyramid of Chephren was a wall. According to excavations, its thickness was 3.4 meters, the distance to the pyramid was 10.1 meters  .
A small satellite pyramid was located south of Chefren's pyramid. Its ground part was not preserved, but according to the remains of the base and the fragments of the tiles, it was found that the side of its base was 20.1 meters, and the slope of the walls was 52 ° 20 '. The underground chamber of the pyramid has been preserved. Also preserved is the tunnel that the robbers pierced. Probably in this pyramid the wife of Khafra was buried  .
To the west of the pyramid also in 1881, it was possible to find the ruins of the dwelling of the ancient builders of the pyramid. It housed 91 rooms, each measuring 26 by 3 meters  .
Scheme of the memorial temple of Chefren
Granite Temple Outline
Mencaura Pyramid Complex (Mycerin)
The lowest of the three great pyramids, the pyramid of the pharaoh Menkaur (Mykerin) is located in the southwest of the necropolis at a considerable distance from the pyramids of Khufu and Khafr. The side of its foundation is 108.4 meters, the height was originally 66 meters, now it is 62 meters. It was lined with slabs of red Aswan granite by a third, the upper part was made of white turkish limestone, and the top was probably also made of red granite. According to eyewitnesses, it was two-tone in the XVI century, but was later plundered by the Mamelukes . Currently, only the lower part of the lining under sand deposits has been preserved  .
Based on the location of the first entrance to the pyramid, initially the length of its base was 60 meters, but later its value was significantly increased. The burial chamber was originally located 6 meters below the base, but later it was placed below  .
For the construction of the pyramid, stone blocks of a larger size were used than for the pyramids of Cheops and Chefren. Blocks were carefully crafted to speed up construction. But the pharaoh did not live to see the end of construction - at the time of his death, the pyramid reached a height of 20 meters (the level of granite lining). The English Egyptologist I. E. S. Edwards suggested that initially red granite was to be used to clad the entire pyramid, however, after the death of Menkaur, his successor, Pharaoh Shepseskaf , changed the original plan  .
Unlike the pyramids of the predecessors, the Mykerin pyramid was not built on a rocky base, but on an artificial terrace created from limestone blocks. The size of the burial chamber is 6.5 by 2.3 meters, height - 3.5 meters. The ceiling of the chamber consists of two half blocks, which were carved from the lower side in the form of a half-arch. The burial chamber and the corridor leading into it are faced with polished granite. The layout of the interior is complex, because during the construction there were three changes from the original plan. The initial burial chamber and the corridor leading into it were connected to the entrance corridor by a staircase  .
There was a sarcophagus in the burial chamber, but he drowned in the ocean during transportation. Its description and drawing have been preserved. It was made of basalt, its surface was covered with reliefs. Scientists suggest that this sarcophagus belongs to a later era - perhaps the mummy, which survived after being robbed during the Old Kingdom, was put into a new sarcophagus  .
The buildings around the pyramid are poorly preserved, their ruins are covered with sand. Есть описание Заупокойного храма, относящееся к 1755 году, когда он ещё был в хорошем состоянии. Согласно ему площадь храма составляла 45 на 45 метров. Половину храма занимал двор, в другой находились сооружения для отправления культа и складские помещения. В полукилометре к востоку располагался Нижний храм, его размеры были примерно такими же. Согласно проведённым раскопкам этот храм был отреставрирован и расширен во время правления VI династии. От Заупокойного к Нижнему храму вела дорога из отшлифованных известняковых плит, часть её сохранилась до настоящего времени  .
Около южной части пирамиды Микерина, за оградой, располагаются неплохо сохранившиеся пирамиды-спутники. Наибольшая из них — восточная. Сторона её основания составляет 44,3 метра, высота — 28,3 метра. Первоначально она была облицована гранитом, кое-где облицовка сохранилась. Вторая и третья ступенчатые. Предполагается, что они не были закончены и им планировали придать вид «истинных» пирамид. Сторона их составляет 31,5 метра, высота — 21,2 метра  .
В 1837 году в восточной пирамиде был найден саркофаг из гранита, в средней — фрагменты деревянного гроба и человеческие кости. В западной пирамиде погребальная камера закончена не была. Около каждой из пирамид размещался заупокойный храм, все они вместе были обнесены каменной стеной. По предположению Рейснера, в восточной пирамиде была похоронена главная жена Менкаура, Хамерернебти II  .
Пирамида царицы Хамерернебти II G3a
Комплекс Большого Сфинкса
Большой Сфинкс расположен к востоку от пирамиды Хефрена. Статуя, которая была вытесана из единой глыбы того же материала, что и пирамиды Хеопса и Хефрена, представляет собой лежащего льва с головой человека. Её длина от передней лапы до хвоста составляет 57,3 метра, высота — 20 метров. На основании записи, найденной у ног статуи, предполагается, что Сфинкс был построен по приказу фараона Хафры, а черты его лица повторяют черты лица самого фараона. В настоящее время статуя сильно повреждена, особенно сильно досталось его лицу, испещрённому выбоинами  .
Сфинкса постоянно заносило песком, поэтому его периодически приходилось откапывать. В последнее время это было сделано в 1920-е годы. Кроме того, тогда же статуя была частично отреставрирована и обнесена оградой, защищавшей её от заносов песком  .
Неподалёку от статуи находится Храм Сфинкса , который был обнаружен только в XX веке  .
Схема Храма Сфинкса
Как считается, блоки весом не более 2,5 тонн, из которых сложены основные объёмы пирамид, вырубались из достаточно мягкого нуммулитового известняка в карьерах , находящихся рядом с пирамидами, и доставлялись к месту постройки волоком . А поднимались на высоту с помощью пандусов и, возможно, блоков  . Внешняя облицовка пирамид была изготовлена из более плотного и белого турского известняка. Хорошо выровненные блоки скреплялись с помощью тонкого слоя строительного раствора , а блоки внутренней кладки, сохранившие грубые сколы поверхности, залиты достаточно толстым слоем.
В 1-й половине XIX века наместник Египта паша Мухаммед Али предложил Линан де Бельфону , главному инженеру строительных работ Египта в 1831—1869 годах, разобрать несколько пирамид — или даже все, если понадобится, — на стройматериалы для строительства дамб на Ниле , нужных для развития ирригации . Линан де Бельфон не стал отвергать предложение, понимая, что в таком случае паша не будет с ним спорить, а просто передаст выполнение работ кому-то другому — взамен он предоставил детальные расчёты, показывающие полную финансовую несостоятельность такого проекта.
Мастаба Хуфухаф (G 7140 и G 7130 восточное захоронение)
Мастаба Хуфухафа I (фрагмент надписи)
Бюст Анхафа (мастаба G 7510)
Часовня с округлым сводом Имери (G 6020 захоронение западное)
Мастаба Кара (восточное захоронение)
Гравюры из мастабы Кара (восточное захоронение)
Мастаба Иду (восточное захоронение)
Статуя из мастабы Иду (восточное захоронение)
Солнечная ладья, найденная рядом с пирамидой Хеопса
- Некрополь Гизы
- Пирамиды с гладкими сторонами
- Список объектов Всемирного наследия ЮНЕСКО в Африке
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- Lehner M. The Complete Pyramids. — P. 116.
- Porter, Bertha and Moss, Rosalind, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Statues, Reliefs and Paintings Volume III: Memphis, Part I Abu Rawash to Abusir. 2nd edition (revised and augmented by Dr Jaromir Malek, 1974. Retrieved from gizapyramids.org
- Замаровский В. Их величества пирамиды. — С. 286—291.
- Замаровский В. Их величества пирамиды. — С. 291—295.
- Замаровский В. Их величества пирамиды. — С. 296—299.
- Рег Кокс, Нейл Моррис. Великая пирамида в Гизе // Семь чудес света. — М. : БММ АО, 1997. — С. 4. — ISBN 5-88353-014-1 .
- Замаровский В. Их величества пирамиды / Пер. со словацкого О. И. Малевича. After Н. С. Петровского. — М. : Главная редакция восточной литературы издательства «Наука», 1981. — 447 с. — (По следам исчезнувших культур Востока).
- Lehner M. The Complete Pyramids . — London: Thames & Hudson, 1997. — 256 p. — ISBN 0-500-05084-8 .