Arkansas   (also Arkansas  ; English Arkansas , [ˈärˊkənsô] listen  ) - the state  in the south of the USA belongs to the group of states of the Southwest Center. The population of 2 937 979 people (32nd place among US states; 2011 data). The capital and largest city is Little Rock  .
|"The people rule"|
( lat.Regnat populus )
Arkansas (You Run Deep in Me)
|"Natural state" |
( English The Natural State )
The largest city
|2 937 979 ( 2011 )|
32nd in the USA
|density||21.33 people / km²|
34th in the USA
|Total||137 732 km²|
|water surface||2 876 km² (2.09%)|
|latitude||33 ° 0 's. w. at 36 ° 30 's. w. , 385 km|
|longitude||89 ° 41 'C. d. at 94 ° 42 's. d. , 420 km|
Height above sea level
|June 15, 1836|
25 in a row
|before accepting status||Arkansas Territory|
|Arkansas General Assembly|
|upper chamber||Senate of arkansas|
|Lower Chamber||House of Representatives Arkansas|
|Central time: GMT -6 / -5|
The official nickname is Natural State .
The word "Arkansas" is the Algonkin exonym of the Sioux tribe Kuapo .
- 1 Geography
- 1.1 Relief
- 1.2 Hydrography
- 1.3 Climate
- 2 History
- 3 population
- 3.1 National composition
- 3.2 Religious affiliation
- 4 Economics
- 4.1 Industry and trade
- 5 notes
- 6 References
Arkansas Square is 137,732 km² (29th among states). In the south, the state borders with Louisiana , in the west with Texas and Oklahoma , in the east with Tennessee and Mississippi , in the north with Missouri . The US Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, a subcategory of the southwestern central states. Most of the state’s eastern border runs along the Mississippi River , with the exception of Green and Clay counties, where the St. Francis River is the border with the state of Missouri , and also in dozens of places where the current Mississippi channel deviated from the old channel serving as the border by force the law. In many places, the eastern border of the state is determined approximately due to changes in the river bed.
Conventionally, Arkansas can be divided into two halves - the elevations of the northwest and the lowlands of the southeast. Uplands of the northwest are part of the southern internal highlands of the United States, which include the Ozark Plateau and the Washita Mountains. The lowlands of the southeastern half of the state include the coastal plains of the Gulf of Mexico and the Arkansas Delta. On the territory of Arkansas, seven natural regions are distinguished: the Ozark Plateau, the Washito Mountains, the Arkansas River Valley, the coastal plains of the Gulf of Mexico, the Crowlies Ridge , and the Arkansas Delta  .
The alluvial plains of the southeast state adjacent to the Mississippi River are called the Arkansas Delta. This region with an almost flat surface has rich alluvial soils formed from the spills of the Mississippi River . The Great Prairies of the southeast, located further from the river, are characterized by a more undulating landscape. Both regions are fertile agricultural areas. The Arkansas Delta is divided into almost two equal halves by such an unusual geological formation as the Crowlis Ridge Upland. The narrow strip of hills forming the ridge rises from 76 to 150 m above the surrounding alluvial plains.
The northwest of the state occupies the Ozark plateau, which includes the mountains of the same name. To the south of them are the Washita Mountains. These two geographic regions are shared by the Arkansas River. These mountain systems are part of the southern highlands of the United States - the only major mountainous country between the Appalachian Mountains in the east and the Rocky Mountains in the west. The highest point of the state is Mount Shop in the Washita Mountains  839 meters above sea level  .
The state of Arkansas is rich in water bodies - rivers, lakes, reservoirs. All of them belong to the Mississippi River Basin. The main tributaries of the Mississippi River are the Arkansas , White River, and St. Francis Rivers . The Buffalo , Little Red River , Black River, and Kas rivers are tributaries of the White River . Salin, Little Missouri, and Caddo flow into the Washito River , which flows in the south of the state.
The Red River, on a small stretch, serves as the border between Arkansas and Texas  .
There are few lakes of natural origin in Arkansas, but there are many large reservoirs of artificial origin - De Gray reservoirs, Washito, Griers Ferry and others 
The climate is humid subtropical, in the mountains in the north of the state - moderate humid continental. Arkansas, although it does not go to the coast of the Gulf of Mexico , is close enough to it to experience the strong influence of this large body of water. Arkansas is characterized by hot, humid summers and cold, less humid, winters. In Little Rock , the state capital, in July the average maximum is 34 ° C (93 ° F), at least 23 ° C (73 ° F). The January average high is 11 ° C (51 ° F), the average low is 0 ° C (32 ° F). The average annual rainfall in the state ranges from 1000 and 1500 mm. Somewhat wetter in the south and land in the north of the state  . Snow falls quite rarely, often in the northern half of the state. The absolute maximum temperature for Arkansas - 49 ° C (120 ° F) was recorded in the city of Ozark on August 10, 1936. The absolute minimum of −34 ° C (-29 ° F) was recorded in the city of Greyvette on February 13, 1905  .
Arkansas is known for weather disasters. Thunderstorms, tornadoes and snowstorms sweep over the state, hail falls. Up to 60 days of thunderstorms are observed in Arkansas.
Among the first researchers who visited the territory of the modern state were Hernando de Soto (1541), Jacques Marquette and Louis Jollie (1673), Robert la Salle (1681)  . By the arrival of European settlers in the late XVII - early XVIII centuries, the territory of modern Arkansas was inhabited by related caddo tribes, as well as Osage and Kuapo .
The first European settlement in the state was the Arkansas Post . The trading post was built by the French in the immediate vicinity of the Kuapo settlement in 1686 by Henry de Tonti  . French settlers, including fur dealers, began to populate the territory at the beginning of the 18th century, and the Arkansas Post was used as a regional transshipment center. During the Seven Years War, Arkansas repeatedly passed from France to Spain and vice versa, although neither side showed particular interest in the Arkansas Post, remote from the colonial centers  . The territory got its name from the early Spanish or French explorers: as the Indians of the Illinois tribe called the Kuapos, who lived from them lower along the Mississippi River  .
The territory of the future state was annexed to the United States in 1803 as a result of the Louisiana purchase . On July 4, 1819, after much debate over the maintenance of slavery, the Arkansas Territory was formed. The issue of the use of slave labor for many years divided the southeast, where slaves were used to harvest crops on plantations , and the hilly northwest, where cotton was not grown and farms became widespread. June 15, 1836 Arkansas became part of the union state as a slave state (25th in a row). After the Civil War, he was re-admitted to the United States ( 1868 ), despite the veto of President Andrew Johnson. During the war, the state equipped several regiments for the Confederate army. In particular, the 3rd Arkansas Infantry Regiment went through all the main battles of the war in the Eastern Theater.
According to the US Census Bureau, as of July 1, 2012, the state had a population of 2,949,132 (+ 1.1% from the 2010 US Census)  .
With less than 15,000 in 1820, the population of Arkansas grew to 52,240 in 1835, exceeding the required 40,000 for state recognition. Starting from becoming a state in 1836 , the population doubled every 10 years until the 1870 U.S. population census conducted after the Civil War . In the future, the state population continued to increase, with the exception of census periods preceding the 1950 and 1960 censuses. The outflow of the population during these years was associated with the influence of a number of factors, including mechanization of agriculture, which caused a drop in the level of employment and an outflow of young educated specialists due to the insufficient degree of development of non-agricultural sectors of the economy. The state population has reached 2 million according to the 1980 census  .
Racial affiliation: White - 80.1% (74.2% non-Hispanic whites), African Americans - 15.6%, Indians and Native Alaskans - 0.9%, Asians - 1.3% and 1.8% - persons who indicated belonging to two or more races. Hispanic speakers of any race make up 6.6% of the state’s population  . In 2011, 39.0% of Arkansans under the age of 1 were children of ethnic minorities 
Americans of European descent make up the vast majority of the population in the northwest, in Ozark, and in the central part of the state. African Americans primarily live in the south and east of the state. Arkansans of Irish, English, and German descent live mainly in the far northwest, on the border with the state of Missouri .
Residents of Arkansas by origin refer to  :
- English - 20.7%;
- African Americans - 15.6%;
- Irish - 12.5%;
- Germans - 11.2%;
- French - 2.1%;
- Dutch - 1.7%;
- Italians - 1.6%;
- Scots - 1.6%;
- Northern Irish - 1.3%
Many residents who call themselves "Americans" are actually of English or North Irish descent, but their families have lived in the state for so long (sometimes since the state was formed) that they indicate American origin or do not indicate it at all. Many of those who indicated Irish descent, in fact, are of Northern Irish descent     .
According to a 2006–2008 study of American society, 93.8% of Arkansas residents (over 5 years old) only speak English at home. About 4.5% of the population speak Spanish at home. About 0.7% speak other Indo-European languages. About 0.8% speak Asian.
Arkansas, like many states in the southern United States, is part of the Bible belt with a predominantly Protestant population. In 2000, the largest churches in terms of followers were: Southern Baptist Convention (665,307); United Methodist Church (179,383); The Roman Catholic Church (115 967) and the American Baptist Association (115 916)  .
Gross domestic product in 2010 amounted to $ 105 billion. Six Fortune 500 companies are headquartered in Arkansas, including Walmart's No. 1 retailer in the world. GDP per capita in 2010 amounted to $ 36,027 (45th place in the United States). The main agricultural products of the state are poultry , eggs , soybeans , sorghum , cattle , cotton , rice , pork and milk . The main industries are food , electrical equipment, finished metal products, auto parts and printing . Arkansas produces natural gas , oil , gravel , bromine and vanadium . As of April 2013, the unemployment rate was 7.1%.
Industry and Commerce
Initially, the main branches of the state were fur trade and agriculture . Although today only 3% of the population is engaged in agriculture, it still plays an important role in the state economy, occupying 13th place in the state in terms of the cost of goods sold. The state is the largest producer of rice , broiler meat and turkey in the USA, and is included in the TOP-three for cotton, chicken and aquaculture  . The state is in fourth place in the country for the production of lumber. An important part of the economy previously consisted of bauxite mining , mainly in Seilin County  .
Tourism is important in the state economy. The state’s official nickname, “Natural State,” was developed in the 1970s to promote tourism. The state has 52 state national parks, as well as 7 parks of the US National Park Service , including the country's first national park - the National Hot Springs Park . Many cities in the state hold festivals that attract a large number of tourists.
- United States of America // Atlas of the World / comp. and preparation. to the ed. PKO "Cartography" in 2009; ch. ed. G.V. Pozdnyak . - M .: PKO "Cartography": Onyx, 2010. - S. 168-169. - ISBN 978-5-85120-295-7 (Cartography). - ISBN 978-5-488-02609-4 (Onyx).
- Ageenko F. L. Proper names in Russian: Dictionary of stresses: More than 35,000 dictionary units. - M.: NTs ENAS, 2001 .-- S. 27
- Arkansas // Dictionary of geographical names of foreign countries / resp. ed. A.M. Komkov . - 3rd ed., Revised. and add. - M .: Nedra , 1986.- S. 25.
- Bright, William. Native American Placenames of the United States . - University of Oklahoma Press, 2004 .-- P. 47-48. - 600 p. - ISBN 0806135980 .
- Index of geographical names // Atlas of the world / comp. and preparation. to the ed. PKO "Cartography" in 2009; ch. ed. G.V. Pozdnyak . - M .: PKO "Cartography": Onyx, 2010. - S. 205. - ISBN 978-5-85120-295-7 (Cartography). - ISBN 978-5-488-02609-4 (Onyx).
- Arkansas // Small Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron : in 4 volumes - St. Petersburg. 1907-1909.
- Arkansas Regions (inaccessible link) . Archived on June 14, 2012.
- Archived copy (inaccessible link) . Date of treatment June 20, 2013. Archived March 6, 2013.
- United States Geographic Names Information System: Signal Hill
- Smith 1989, p. 24.
- Smith 1989, p. 25.
- Arkansas - Climate
- Extremes & 124; State Climate Extremes Committee (SCEC)
- Indians of Arkansas: First Encounters
- Arnold 1992, p. 75.
- Arnold et al 2002, p. 82.
- LISTSERV 16.0 (inaccessible link) . Archived December 8, 2008.
- National Totals: Vintage 2012 - US Census Bureau
- Resident Population Data (unavailable link) (2010). Archived December 16, 2010.
- Arkansas QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau . Archived January 4, 2011.
- Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot & 124; cleveland.com
- American FactFinder - Results
- Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America By Dominic J. Pulera.
- Reynolds Farley, 'The New Census Question about Ancestry: What Did It Tell Us?', Demography , Vol. 28, No. 3 (August 1991), pp. 414, 421.
- Stanley Lieberson and Lawrence Santi, 'The Use of Nativity Data to Estimate Ethnic Characteristics and Patterns', Social Science Research , Vol. 14, No. 1 (1985), pp. 44-6.
- Stanley Lieberson and Mary C. Waters, 'Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites', Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science , Vol. 487, No. 79 (September 1986), pp. 82-86.
- The Association of Religion Data Archives & 124; Maps & Reports (inaccessible link) . Date of treatment June 21, 2013. Archived May 10, 2008.
- United States Department of Agriculture - Home
- Archived copy (inaccessible link) . Date of treatment June 21, 2013. Archived January 17, 2013.
- arkansas.gov (English) - Arkansas official website