Greeks  (self-name - Hellenes   Greek. Έλληνες , pronounced elínes ) - people, the main population of Greece and Cyprus . The number of 13 million people in 2011, including in Greece, 9 million people in 2011, including Pontic Greeks and Tsakonians - descendants of ancient Spartans in the mountainous regions of the Peloponnese and in the south of the island of Cyprus, up to 700 thousand people. They speak Greek  , which forms a special mono - group of Indo-European languages  .
|Modern self-name||Greek Έλληνες|
|Abundance and area|
|Total: 13 million (2011, rating) |
Greece : 9 million (2011, rating) 
|Archaeological culture||Greek culture|
|Ethnic groups||Pontians , Greek Cypriots , Urumahs , Rumei|
|Origin||Indo-European , Minoan|
Formed in the extreme southeast of Europe in the 1st millennium BC. e.
The self-name of the ancient and modern Greeks from the 7th century BC. e. - Hellenes  . The ethnonym "Greeks" ( dr. Greek Γραικοί , lat. Graeci ) comes from the Latin language and initially, apparently, belonged to one of the tribes of Northern Greece, which is reflected in the name of the locality of  (Graia, Γραία ) in Central Greece, was perceived by the Romans, probably from the colonists from Gray at Qumi  . The Romans transferred the name "Greeks" to the entire Hellenic people  .
Greek language (ελληνικι, "Hellenic", ελληνική γλώσσα ("Hellenic Glossa")) is the language of the Greek group . The Greek language has several historical versions - the ancient Greek language (αρχαία ελληνική γλώσσα (“archaea of the Hellenic Glossa”)), the Greek language (Μεσαιωνική ελληνική γλώσσα (“Mesaenics of the Hellenic глlossный )) and kafarevusa (καθαρεύουσα)), modern Greek (Νέα ελληνική γλώσσα ("nea Hellenica Glossa") or Ρωμαίικα ("romaika")) (has two varieties - kafarevusa (καθαρεήσσ
Initially, a single Greek language did not exist - there were a number of dialects of the Greek language group, forming three branches:
- Western branch
- Dorian dialect (Messenia, Laconic, Dorida, Asia Minor Dorida)
- Northwest dialect (Elida)
- Achaean dialect (Achaea)
- Central branch
- Aeolian dialect (Thessaly, Boeotia, Aeolius)
- Arcade dialect (Arcadia)
- East branch
- Attic dialect (Attica)
- Alexandria dialect
- Byzantine language
- Hebrew Greek dialect
- Alexandria dialect
- Ionian dialect (Ionia)
- Attic dialect (Attica)
In the IV century BC e. on the basis of the Attic dialect a single literary ancient Greek language arose - koyne. At the same time, the Greeks settled Thrace, Epirus, Bithynia, Lydia, Pont, Cappadocia, assimilating the local population of these territories in connection with the collapse of the Persian Empire by colonization (the withdrawal of colonies - Klerukhs). Koyne became the official language of the Christian church shortly after its emergence and was such, along with the Latin language, as well as the official language of Greek Jews, taking shape in the Hebrew-Greek dialect .
As a result of a number of transformations, the ancient Greek language in the 4th century was transformed into the Middle Greek language. In the XV century, on the basis of the Greek language:
- Modern Greek language has several dialects:
- Standard Modern Greek (“Νεοελληηιικι Κοινή”)
- Kafarevusa ("καθαρεύουσα")
- Dimotica ("δημοτική γλώσσα")
- Northern Greek dialects of the Greek language (Epirus, Macedonia, Thessaly, continental Greece):
- Rumelian dialect of the Greek language ( Rumelia )
- Macedonian Greek ( Macedonia )
- Thracian dialect of the Greek language ( Thrace )
- Epirus Dialect of Greek ( Epirus )
- Thessaly Greek ( Thessaly )
- Peloponnese-Ionian dialect of the Greek language ( Peloponnese and Ionian Islands )
- Cretan dialect of the Greek language ( Crete )
- Southeast Greek Dialect ( Dodecanese )
- Old Athenian dialect of the Greek language ( Attica )
- Cypriot dialect of the Greek language ( Cyprus )
- Northern Greek dialects of the Greek language (Epirus, Macedonia, Thessaly, continental Greece):
- Cappadocian Greek ( Cappadocia );
- Tauride-Romanian language ( Tauris , now the Azov region)
- Pontic language ( Pontus ).
Based on the Doric dialect, the following arose:
- Italian-Romanian language ;
- Tsakonsky language
- Maniot dialect
- Sfakyot dialect
- Khimariot dialect .
Before the adoption of the Phoenician alphabet by the Greeks, there were two types of writing: Cretan and Cypriot. Both species were supplanted by the generally accepted, and with time changed (phonetic meaning of a series of letters denoting consonant sounds was changed to vowel sounds), Phoenician script. The single Greek alphabet appeared quite late, since for a long time there were several alphabets: Ionian (Ionia), Athenian (Attica), Argos (Argolis) and Corinthian. After the Macedonian lagid clan became the dynasty of the rulers of Egypt, the Greek script became the official script of Egypt, marking the beginning of the Coptic script. Since Koyne became the official language of the Christian church, the Greek alphabet was officially adopted as the main one in the written sources of the Christian church. After the adoption of Christianity by the Goths and Slavs, Greek writing became the official written language of the Goths, Bulgarians, Serbs and Russians, laying the foundation for Gothic writing, Cyrillic and Glagolitic.
For a long time, the Greeks did not have a single calendar, since there were several similar calendars: Athenian (Attica), Miletian (Ionia), Aetolian (Aetolia), Thessalian (Thessaly), Boeotian (Boeotia) and Epidaurus (Argolis). After the Roman (Julian) calendar became the official calendar of the Christian church, the Julian calendar over time was used by the Greeks and became their main one. At the same time, the Jewish chronology was left, leading back to the creation of the world (the dates of the "creation of the world" were established, in fact, by separate large communities), the dates of the feast of the Resurrection of Christ, the Ascension of the Lord, the Day of the Holy Spirit were also determined. After the entry of the lands inhabited by the Greeks into the Ottoman Empire, a nationwide Islamic calendar was established with a chronology from Hijra , which, in turn, after the founding of the Greek state in 1830, was replaced by a modern European one.
Initially, the Greeks adhered to traditional beliefs . A number of philosophical teachings departed from the ancient Greek religion ( V - IV centuries BC ): Pythagoreans, peripatetics, Platonists, Stoics, Epicureans. In the 1st century AD, Christians began to infiltrate the Greek provinces of the Roman Empire, and together remove the Christian bishops, one of which - the Archbishopric of New Justinian - laid the foundation for the Cyprus Orthodox Church (autocephaly since 431), the other - the Archbishopric of Byzantium - the Orthodox Church of Constantinople ( autocephaly from 381 years). In 1833, the Greek Orthodox Church was proclaimed. On June 29, 1850, it was recognized by the Orthodox Church of Constantinople. On December 20, 1965, the Cretan Orthodox Church was proclaimed. Modern Greeks are mainly Christians, the vast majority of whom profess Orthodoxy . A much smaller portion adheres to Catholicism ( Greek Catholic Church ).
There are also Muslim Greeks . When the territory of the Byzantine Empire , in particular, Greece , Crete , Pontus and Cyprus , became part of the Ottoman Empire , part of the Greeks Islamized .
Ancient Greek mythology first mentions the Greeks in Thessaly - where the ancestor of the Greeks lived - Ellin and his three sons - Dor, Aeolus and Ksuf. At the beginning of I millennium BC. e. as a result of the demographic boom, the number of Hellenes by the 5th century BC e. amounted to 10 million people (10% of the world's population). The current Greek population is only 0.32% of the world's population.
In ancient times, the Hellenes were divided into 4 branches - Ionians , Aeolians , Achaeans , Dorians . The Ionians first occupied Attica , but later the Cyclades, Sporades and Ionia, and later the Ionians began to establish colonies in the Crimea ( Theodosius , Panticapaeum , Phanagoria , Germonassa ). Over time, the language of the Ionian of Attica and the Ionian of Asia Minor Ionia began to differ and were divided into two dialects - Ionian and Attic . The Attic dialect formed the basis of the "common language" (ἡ κοινὴ διάλεκτος) - the Greek language of the Hellenistic era, spread in Asia Minor , Thrace and other regions of the Eastern Mediterranean. The "common language" formed the basis of the medieval Greek language, which, in turn, formed the basis of the modern Greek language including the Cypriot dialect , Cretan dialect , Pontic language , Cappadocian language , Tauride-Romanian language . At the same time, the Greeks began to settle around the Mediterranean by removing the Kleukhs - the Greeks completely colonized Epirus , Macedonia , Thrace, Anatolia , Bithynia , Pont , Cappadocia , made up an influential minority in Egypt , Syria, Palestine , and Bactria . By the 2nd century, almost all Greek states (with the exception of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom , defeated by the Tochars in 125 BC) were included in the Roman Empire , all Greeks living in the Roman Empire became Roman citizens and therefore became known as Romans. The invasion of the Seljuk Turks in Asia Minor led to the gradual disappearance of the Greek-speaking population in Caria, Mission, Lydia, Phrygia, Bithynia, Cilicia. For a long time, the Greek-speaking population persisted in Cappadocia. In 1923, the Cappadocian Greeks and Pontic Greeks were evicted to Greece. Most of the Crimean Greeks in the XVIII century were evicted from the Crimean Khanate and moved to the Sea of Azov.
The Aeolians settled Arcadia, Elis, Aetolia, Akaranania, Boeotius, Phocis, later the Ionian Islands, Lesbos and Aeolis. By now assimilated.
Achaeans settled Achaea. By now assimilated.
The Dorians for a long time continued to live in the northern part of modern Greece and about 1200 BC moved to the central and southern part of modern Greece. The Dorians occupied Laconic, Messenia, Peloponnese, Dorida, Corinth, Megarida, Crete and Dodecanese. Later they founded a number of colonies on the Apennine Peninsula (Tarentum, Gidrunt), in Epirus ( Ambracia ). The Dorian dialect of Lakoniki formed the basis of modern Tsakon language and the Maniot dialect, the Dorian dialect of Crete formed the basis of the Sphakiot dialect, the Dorian dialect of Epirus formed the basis of the Himariot dialect, and the Dorian dialect of the Apennine peninsula formed the basis of the Italian-Rumean language. Tsakons (residing in Kinuria) and Maniots (residing on the Mani Peninsula) consider themselves descendants of the Dorians. In addition, the descendants of the Dorians consider themselves and the Sphakiot, living in the community of Sfakia. The origin of the Karakachans (living in Macedonia and Bulgaria) is not exactly established, they speak a special dialect of the Greek language.
Ethnic Groups of Ancient Greeks
- Peoples of the Sea
- The Ionian
- The Ionian
Greeks in the period of Hellenism and Byzantium
Modern Greek Ethnic Groups
- Actually the Greeks ( Hellas , partially the diaspora )
- Anatolian Greeks (Anatolia, now the diaspora in Turkey)
- Greek Cretans (Crete)
- Greek Cypriots (Cyprus) - 648.455 people.
- Pontians ( Pontus , later Crimea and the Black Sea ) - 3 million people
- Rumei ( Tauris , now Azov ) - 105 thousand people. together with the Urumahs
These peoples profess Orthodoxy, and their writing has long been or is Greek writing.
- Gagauz-Greeks (disputed origin  , originally Macedonia , from the 18th century Budzhak )
- Karamanlids (Turkized Greeks of Cappadocia )
- Urumahs (Turkized Greeks of Tauris )
Modern genetic studies show that among the Greeks, the Y-haplogroups E1b1b1 and J2 (which are also common among residents of Northeast Africa and the Middle East) predominate, with E1b1b1 prevailing in the Peloponnese , and J2 dominating the island of Crete .
Y-DNA of the haplogroup of the inhabitants of Greece  according to the website “Eupedia: Your Guide to Europe in English” (as of August 2009):
- haplogroup E1b1b1 - 27%
- haplogroup J2 - 25%
- haplogroup R1a - 12%
- haplogroup R1b - 12%
- haplogroup I2a - 10%
- haplogroup I1 - 4%
- haplogroup G2a - 3.5%
- haplogroups T and L - 3%
- haplogroup J1 - 2%
- haplogroup I2b - 1.5%
Middle networks showed that most Greek haplotypes are grouped into five well-known haplogroups, and that many haplotypes are distributed among Greeks and other European and Middle Eastern populations. Within the studied places, the genetic composition of the Greeks indicates a significantly lower level of heterogeneity compared to other European populations.
R1a1 haplotype levels associated with proto-Indo-European migrations were less than 12% (for comparison, in Syria - 10%, Poland - 60%). Taking into account the alleged stay of the proto-Greek tribes before their resettlement to Greece in the Podunavia region (which allows, with some reservations, also include the ancestors of carriers of the haplogroup R1b among migrants).
According to the studies of geneticists, modern Greeks are descendants of the Minoans and Mycenaeans with a small admixture of blood of other peoples    . Earlier, a 19th-century German historian Falmeraer suggested that the descendants of the ancient Greeks became extinct by the beginning of the early Middle Ages  .
Greek mythology first mentions the Greeks in Thessaly. It is Thessaly that is the birthplace of the ancestor of the Greeks - Ellin. In the XIII century BC e. the Greeks colonized the islands of the Aegean Sea and Crete, a little later - after the Trojan War - the Aegean coast of Asia Minor. Many Greek city-states arose, the most famous of which were Athens, Sparta, Thebes, Argos, Corinth. In the VIII-VI centuries BC. e. Greeks founded colonies in the Northern Black Sea region, on the Apennine and Iberian peninsulas. The population of Greece was divided into aristocracy (arists, eupatrides) and the working people (demos), which were free artisans and peasants. There were also slaves (duls) who were of non-Greek origin and worked on the land of aristocrats. In 338 BC e. the Hellenic Union arose. The representative body of this union was the elected Sanhedrin. At the head of the union was an autocrat, who was ex officio the ruler of Macedonia. The Hellenic alliance consisted of symmachies (kinonas), symmachies were the Sanhedrin or Bule, and the strategist (or polemarch) was at the head of the symmachies. Symmachies were divided into polities, the supreme bodies of polities were synods or ecclesias, consisting of all citizens, between them there were Gerusians (in Athens it was called “Areopagus”), elected from among the aristocrats, and sanhedrons or boules, elected from among the demos. The head of the polity was formally a basileus, elected from among the aristocrats. The actual head of the polity was a strategist or polemarch, elected from among the demos. Politics were divided into phils, led by the philarchs, phils into demos, led by the demarchs. Religious affairs were in charge of priests (clergy) and hieromonmons or hierophants (religious administrators). In the IV-III centuries BC. e. Greeks settled Epirus, Macedonia, Thrace, Pontus, Cappadocia, Anatolia by removing the clerics. Several Greek states arose - the kingdom of Epirus, the kingdom of Macedonia, the kingdom of Odris, the kingdom of Pergamon, the kingdom of Pontus. Later, they were all included in the Roman Empire, becoming its provinces, and the Greeks received the status of Roman citizens and began to be called "Romans", that is, "Romans".
In the IV century AD e. most Greeks converted to Christianity. After the division of the Roman Empire into the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire, the Greeks made up the majority of the population of the Eastern Roman Empire, except for the Egyptian diocese, in which Copts predominated, the East diocese, in which Aisors (Assyrians) dominated, and the province of Dardania , in which the Albanians predominated. The Eastern Roman Empire was a monarchy, the head of state and the bearer of supreme power was the emperor (autocrat), the state apparatus was represented by the Senate of Constantinople (Gerusia), the national assembly of Constantinople (synclitus), the consuls of Constantinople (ipati), and the leaders of circus parties (dimarchs). The territory of the empire was divided into provinces (dioceses), headed by presidents, proofreaders, proconsuls (anfipats), praetors (stratigi).
In the 7th century, the Eastern Roman Empire was invaded by Slavs and Arabs. Thrace and Macedonia were settled by the Slavs, as well as briefly Hellas, Peloponnese and Bithynia. By the 13th century, many Vlachs (Great Vlachia (Thessaly), Lesser Vlachia (Aetolia and Akarnania), Upper Vlachia (Epirus), Vlahorinhia (Macedonia) and Albanians (Epirus) moved to Byzantium. In 1204, the Eastern Roman Empire broke up into a number of Orthodox (Nicene Empire, Trebizond Empire, Epirus despotate) and Uniate (Latin Empire, Thessalonian state) states. The Latin empire and the Thessalonica kingdom were soon conquered by the Orthodox, but their vassals (the Principality of Moreia, the Duchy of Athens) and the Nicene empire vassal - the Morean despotate - existed until the middle of the 15th century and were defeated by the Turks together with other Greek states. After the capture of Constantinople, the Turks killed the emperor of Byzantium, and the Turkish sultan proclaimed himself "Caesar of Rum."
At the end of the XVIII century. among the Greeks, a national liberation movement began, helping to overcome regional differences. Shortly before the annexation of Crimea to Russia, in 1777-1778, at the request of Metropolitan Ignatius with a request to Catherine II to accept Crimean Christians into Russian citizenship, under the leadership of A.V. Suvorov and Metropolitan Gotfsky and Kefaysky Ignatius, the Orthodox population of the peninsula was taken to the area of modern Mariupol.
In 1821, the Peloponnese and Western Greece and the Areopagus of Eastern Greece announced that they refused to obey the Sultan. In 1822, the First Hellenic National Assembly proclaimed the Hellenic Republic and adopted a constitution, according to which legislative power should be exercised by the legislative body, and the executive body by the executive corps. A similar political system was established by the constitution adopted by the Second Greek National Assembly in 1823. The Fourth Greek National Assembly adopted a constitution in 1828, proclaiming the Council as the legislature, and executive power was to be exercised by the president, who elected Ioannis Kapodistrias. The Fourth Greek National Assembly created another organ - the Senate. All this time, the Greek Republic was a self-proclaimed and unrecognized state - not a single state recognized it, nor did the Greek Republic and the Orthodox Church of Constantinople recognize it. In 1832, at a conference of great powers, it was decided to form the Kingdom of Greece - a Greek state with a state system in the form of a constitutional monarchy (the monarch should have the title "King of Greece", this title was awarded to the son of the King of Bavaria - Otton), whose territory should have been Hellas, Peloponnese and Cyclades. The Fifth Greek National Assembly in August of the same year approved these decisions. Until 1843, Otto ruled authoritarianly, local government was abolished, Parliament did not convene for a long time.
After the Berlin Congress, Thessaly departed for Greece, after the Balkan Wars - Macedonia and Epirus, after the First World War - Western Thrace. At the same time, the Greeks were expelled from Anatolia, Pontus and Cappadocia, as a result of which the Greeks have one of the largest diasporas in the world - about 5 million people. 40% Greeks of the Diaspora speak English, 40% - in Greek, 5% - in Russian, 15% - in other languages.
Greeks in the USSR and Russia
Many Greek Pontians fled to the USSR. In the 1920s and 30s, numerous Greek schools were opened in the USSR, books and newspapers were published (for example, Kokinos Kapnas in Abkhazia). In the Krasnodar Territory, a Greek region was created with a district center in the Crimean village.
In 1938, during the " Great Terror ", the "Greek counter-revolutionary nationalist sabotage and terrorist organization" was "exposed" in the Greek area. По делу этой организации были расстреляны 77 человек, Греческий район ликвидирован, а греческие школы перешли на русский язык. В 1944 — 49 годах греки подвергались депортации из Крыма, Абхазии, Аджарии, Северного Кавказа в Казахстан, Среднюю Азию и др.
Согласно переписи 1989 года, в СССР проживало 356 068 греков, в том числе 91 699 в РСФСР  . В конце 1980-х годов многие советские греки эмигрировали в Грецию. Ныне [ when? ] греки компактно проживают на юге Украины  и на Северном Кавказе.
По переписи 2002 года проживало 97 827 греков. Местами наибольшей концентрации греков являются Ставропольский (34 078) и Краснодарский (30 540) края.
По переписи 2010 года греки составляли 15,3 % населения в Предгорном районе и 5,4 % в городском округе Ессентуки Ставропольского края.
- Греческая диаспора
- Греки в США
- Греки в России
- Греки в Египте
- Греки в Эфиопии
- Греки в Армении
- Греки в Венгрии
- Греки в Османской империи
- Совет греков зарубежья
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- Численность и состав населения Украины по итогам Всеукраинской переписи населения 2001 года . Государственный комитет статистики Украины. Дата обращения 8 декабря 2018.
- В. Б. Виноградов. Средняя Кубань. Земляки и соседи. ГРЕКИ
- South Africa (англ.) . Hellenic Republic - Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2018). Дата обращения 8 декабря 2018.
- Brazil (англ.) . Hellenic Republic - Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2018). Дата обращения 8 декабря 2018.
- Belgium (англ.) . Hellenic Republic - Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2018). Дата обращения 8 декабря 2018.
- Argentina (англ.) . Hellenic Republic - Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2018). Дата обращения 8 декабря 2018.
- Netherlands (англ.) . Hellenic Republic - Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2018). Дата обращения 8 декабря 2018.
- Kazakhstan (англ.) . Hellenic Republic - Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2018). Дата обращения 8 декабря 2018.
- Czech Republic (англ.) . Hellenic Republic - Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2018). Дата обращения 8 декабря 2018.
- Chile (англ.) . Hellenic Republic - Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2018). Дата обращения 8 декабря 2018.
- Большой Энциклопедический словарь
- Словарь иностранных слов русского языка
- Греческий язык / Васильева Н. В. // Гермафродит — Григорьев. — М. : Большая российская энциклопедия, 2007. — С. 733. — ( Большая российская энциклопедия : [в 35 т.] / гл. ред. Ю. С. Осипов ; 2004—2017, т. 7). — ISBN 978-5-85270-337-8 .
- Греция Древняя / Фролов Э. Д., Шичалин Ю. А. и др. // Гермафродит — Григорьев [Электронный ресурс]. — 2007. — С. 705-729. — ( Большая российская энциклопедия : [в 35 т.] / гл. ред. Ю. С. Осипов ; 2004—2017, т. 7). — ISBN 978-5-85270-337-8 .
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- Генетики нашли потомков жителей Крита и героев мифов Древней Греции . РИА Новости (2 августа 2017). Дата обращения 8 декабря 2018.
- The Greeks really do have near-mythical origins, ancient DNA reveals (англ.) . https://www.sciencemag.org/ (Aug. 2, 2017). Дата обращения 23 июня 2019.
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- Греки Украины (недоступная ссылка) . Дата обращения 28 января 2009. Архивировано 16 сентября 2015 года.
- Греки // Этноатлас Красноярского края / Совет администрации Красноярского края. Управление общественных связей ; гл. ed. Р. Г. Рафиков ; редкол.: В. П. Кривоногов , Р. Д. Цокаев. - 2nd ed., Revised. and add. — Красноярск: Платина (PLATINA), 2008. — 224 с. — ISBN 978-5-98624-092-3 . Архивировано 29 ноября 2014 года. Архивная копия от 29 ноября 2014 на Wayback Machine
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- Греки России от проекта «Греция от Greek.ru»
- Греки Украины
- Греки в России
- Греки в странах бывшего СССР
- Всё о Греции и греках, Харьковское городское общество греков «Гелиос»
- Как черноморские греки Россию с Грецией подружили
- Кирилл Новиков «Греки выражают удовлетворение районом их расселения»
- В. Б. Виноградов. Средняя Кубань. Земляки и соседи. Greeks