Harald I Sinezuby ( Harald Gormsson ; Dat. Harald Blåtand , Nor. Harald Blåtann ; 930s - November 1, 986 ?) - King of Denmark and Norway . According to a common version, it received a nickname because of the dark color of the teeth: the word blå at that time meant a much darker color than blue. Inherited the throne from his father Gorma the Old , in whose honor he installed one of the runestones in Jelling (Small, or Gorma stone). Holy Catholic Church  .
|Harald I Blue-Toothed|
Harald the Blue-Toothed.
Fresco from the Cathedral of Roskilde (16th century)
|Successor||Sven I the Bearbeard|
|Predecessor||Harald II Gray Hide|
|Successor||Sven I the Bearbeard|
|Burial place||Roskilde Cathedral|
|Spouse||Gunhild, Tova , Girid|
|Children||Hakon , Gunhild , Thira , Sven I the Forkbeard|
- 1 Biography
- 1.1 Domestic and foreign policy
- 1.2 The inscription on the stone from Jelling
- 1.3 Death
- 1.4 Family
- 1.5 Memory
- 2 notes
- 3 Literature
- 4 References
Domestic and foreign policy
Under Harald I, in 965, Denmark officially adopted Christianity . This decision was mainly dictated by the political benefits of such a move - improving relations with the neighboring Holy Roman Empire and the enlightened Christian world as a whole. An archaeological confirmation of the Christianization of Denmark is the golden Disc of Harald Sinezubý , discovered in 1841 on the territory of modern Poland , on which the name of the king, as well as the Christian cross , are engraved.
In 970,  the combined forces of the Danes and the loyal Jarl Haakon II the Mighty of the Norwegians defeated the King of Norway Harald II Gray Skin . After that, the jarl became actually the king of Norway, although at first he still recognized the supreme power of the king of Denmark, but when in 986 Harald tried to force Haakon to adopt Christianity, he completely broke off relations with him. In the same year, the Danes launched an invasion of Norway, which ended in failure.
Jelling stone inscription
An inscription on a runestone from Jelling claims that Harald "conquered all of Denmark." The meaning of these words is still not clear. Several versions were put forward:
- Harald initially owned only part of Jutland and conquered neighboring territories,
- Harald defeated all rivals challenging his right to the crown,
- Perhaps this meant that Harald in 983, in alliance with the encouragement, ousted the Germans from the southern territories of Denmark.
It is assumed that it was during the war with the Germans that Harald built five (one more supposedly at the same time) circular castles in Denmark and Skane .
According to an early medieval source ( Adam of Bremen or Saxon Grammatik ), Harald was killed during the war with his son Svein Viloborodoy . The reason for the disagreement is Harald’s commitment to Christianity, attempts to strengthen the state and expand the powers of its ruler, while Sven was a pagan and preferred traditional raids. However, the objectivity of the source is questioned. For example, Swain, after the accession, continued to issue coins with a cross on the reverse, and in the 990s he founded churches in Lund and other cities. Later, Swain supported the Church of England, which was probably regarded by historians associated with the German archbishoprices as "a departure from Christianity." According to one version, Harald Sinezuby died in the legendary Yomsborg , which he himself had previously founded  .
Harald I the Blue-Toothed was married three times:
- Tova , daughter of Mstivoy Obodritsky
- Girid , daughter of Olaf II Björsson , ruler of Sweden
From these marriages were born:
- Hakon (-987)
- Gunhild (killed November 13, 1002). The wife of Pallig of Devonshire, who died with her husband during the massacre of St. Bryce , arranged by the King of England Ethelred the Unreasonable .
- Thira (-1000). Husbands: 1) Swedish king Stirbjörn Strong ; 2) the ruler of the Wends Burislav Vendsky ; 3) Olaf I Tryggvason .
- Sven I the Forkbeard (960s - 1014). Perhaps the son of a concubine. King of Denmark since 985 , Norway since 1002 , England since 1013 . Spouses: 1) Gunhilda (either the daughter of Meshko of Poland or Burislav Wendsky ; she died in 1013); 2) Sigrid Proud .
At the end of the 20th - beginning of the 21st centuries , wireless technology was created to combine various electronic devices. It was called Bluetooth . This is due to the activities of King Harald, who united peoples in the territory of modern Denmark and Skane, where this technology was developed. Interestingly, the original word Bluetooth was just a project code.
In 2012, the DLC came out for the video game of the strategy genre Sid Meier's Civilization V , called Sid Meier's Civilization V Gods & Kings, in which Harald Sinezuby appears as the ruler of Denmark.
In 2018, a treasure was found on Rugen Island (about 600 coins, pearls, necklaces, rings, brooches and amulets in the form of the hammer of Thor ), attributed to Harald I of Sinezub  .
- Find a Grave
- Catholic Encyclopedia
- Harald IV. Blaatand
- Harald II. Graufell (German)
- Kendrick TD A History of the Vikings, Courier Dover Publications, 2004, p. 182, ISBN 0-48-643396-X
- Treasure hunters found the treasures of the Viking king . Date of appeal April 16, 2018.
- Harald // Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron : in 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb. , 1890-1907.
- Gwyn Jones Vikings. The Descendants of Odin and Thor = A history of the vikings / Per. from English Z. Yu. Metlitskaya. - Centerpolygraph. - M. , 2007 .-- 445 p. - (Riddles of ancient civilizations). - 5,000 copies. - ISBN 978-5-9524-3095-2 .